Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology
Regulatory T Lymphocytes: a Powerful Regulator of the Immunological System
Souza P.C1, Júnior A.S.A.A2
1Estudante do Curso de Biomedicina – UNINASSAU;
2Docente – UNINASSAU.
Introduction: The immune system works by stimulating direct action against various antigens and also by means of “immune memory”. When the organism is induced by a responder to an antigenic aggression, action of several cells occurs by modeling this response, among them they are like regulatory T cells (Tregs). These represent a sub-population of CD4 + T lymphocytes characterized by the expression of the CD25 + molecule and by the nuclear factor FOXP3. Objective: To review the mechanisms of action of Tregs cells in the containment of the immune system. Methodology: The present work consists of a literature review. A localization of the articles was performed in the electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo and Lilacs, between 2012 and 2017. Results and discussion: currently, it is postulated that there are three mechanisms used by Treg cells for their abilities. What is the control of suppressive factors, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), suppressive cytokines such as TGF-β, direct cytolysis or negative signaling through the CTLA-4 molecule, which will inhibit cell proliferation and differentiation. The second method, soluble suppression factors, such as IL-10 cytokines, TGF-β and IL-35, or secretion of suppressive factors from antigen-presenting cells such as adenosine. The third mechanism is based on the competition for cytokines that signal through common γ-chain receptors (IL-2, IL-4 and IL-7), leading to immune cell apoptosis by growth factor deprivation. Conclusion: Tregs cells are potent regulators of the immune system that act by decreasing an immune system’s action excessively. It is believed that with a better understanding of the mechanism of action such as cells, such as Tregs seriously manipulated with a purpose to aid in the treatment of diseases with immune dysregulation.
Keywords: Tregs cells; FOXP3; Immunological modulation
How to cite this article:
Souza P.C, Júnior A.S.A.A. Regulatory T Lymphocytes: a Powerful Regulator of the Immunological System. American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 2018, 1:4