Synthesis of graphene oxide using tea-waste biochar and its application


Synthesis of graphene oxide using tea-waste biochar as green substitute of graphite and its application in de-fluoridation of contaminated water


Swapnila Roy
Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata – 700 032, India

 


American journal of chemical research-2d-codeIn the present study, pyrolysis of domestic tea waste was carried out to yield bio-char. The biochar obtained was further used as a substitute for graphite in synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) in the conventional process. GO obtained was further applied for fluoride removal from simulated effluents. The prepared adsorbent was characterized using SEM, XRD and FTIR analysis. Effect of different experimental parameters on the de-fluoridation efficiency of the reported adsorbent was investigated. Data obtained was further used for determination of process isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics. The regeneration potential of the reported adsorbent was also determined. The experimental results suggested that equilibrium adsorption data was strongly guided by the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetics. Analysis of process thermodynamics also revealed that the adsorption reaction was spontaneous chemisorption in nature. Significant process parameters including GO dosage, ambient temperature and contact time were optimized using Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). Results of RSM and ANN analysis indicated good correlation between experimentally recorded and theoretically predicted % fluoride removals. Under optimized conditions, fluoride removal efficiency was found to be 98.31%. Therefore, it can be inferred that tea waste derived biochar may be accepted as a sustainable alternative of graphite for GO synthesis. Moreover GO so obtained has immense potential for de- fluoridation of effluents in highly reduced dosage and treatment time.


Keywords: Tea waste; Non-graphite GO; Fluoride removal; Process optimization; Isotherms and kinetics; Chemisorption

Free Full-text PDF


How to cite this article:
Swapnila Roy.Synthesis of graphene oxide using tea-waste biochar as green substitute of graphite and its application in de-fluoridation of contaminated water. American Journal of Chemical Research, 2017, 1:1. DOI: 10.28933/ajcr-2017-03-2101


References:
1. Ahmad, M., Moon, D.H., Vithanage, M., et al., 2014. Production and use of biochar from buffalo-weed (Ambrosia trifida L.) for trichloroethylene removal from water. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 89, 150–157.
2. Alagumuthu, G., Rajan, M., 2010a. Equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption of fluoride onto zirconium impregnated cashew nut shell carbon. Chem. Eng. J. 158, 451–457.
3. Alagumuthu, G., Rajan, M., 2010b. Kinetic and equilibrium studies on fluoride removal by zirconium (IV): Impregnated groundnut shell carbon. Hem. Ind. 64, 295–304.
4. Alagumuthu, G., Veeraputhiran, V., Venkataraman, R., 2011. Fluoride sorption using Cynodon dactylon based activated carbon. Hem. Ind. 65, 23–35.
5. Asgari, G., Roshani, B., Ghanizadeh, G., 2012. The investigation of kinetic and isotherm of fluoride adsorption onto functionalize pumice stone. J. Hazard. Mater. 217–218.
6. Banerjee, P., Sau, S., Das, P., Mukhopadhayay, A., 2015. Optimization and modelling of synthetic azo dye wastewater treatment using Graphene oxide nanoplatelets: Characterization toxicity evaluation and optimization using Artificial Neural Network. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 119, 47–57.
7. Bhaumik, R., Mondal, N.K., Das, B., Roy, P., Pal, K.C., Das, C., Banerjee, A., Datta, J.K., 2012. Eggshell powder as an adsorbent for removal of fluoride from aqueous solution: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J. Chem 9, 1457–1480.
8. Botas, C., Álvarez, P., Blanco, C., Santamaria, R., Granda, M., Ares, P., Reinoso, F.R., Menéndez, R., 2012. The effect of the parent graphite on the structure of graphene oxide. Carbon 50, 275–282.
9. Chu, K.H., 2003. Prediction of two-metal biosorption equilibria using a neural network. European J. Mineral Proc. Environ. Prot. 3(1), 119-127.
10. Daifullah, A.A., Yakout, S.M., Elreefy, S.A., 2007. Adsorption of fluoride in aqueous solutions using KMnO4-modified activated carbon derived from steam pyrolysis of rice straw. J. Hazard. Mater. 147, 633–643.
11. Emmanuel, K.A., Ramaraju, K.A., Rambabu, G., Veerabhadra Rao, A., 2008. Removal of fluoride from drinking water with activated carbons prepared from HNO3 activation—A comparative study. Rasayan J. Chem. 1, 802–818.
12. Fan, X., Parker, D.J., Smith, M.D., 2003. Adsorption kinetics of fluoride on low cost materials. Water Res. 37, 4929–4937.
13. Garg, U.K., Kaur, M.P., Sud, D., Garg, V.K., 2009. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by adsorption on treated sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodological approach. Desalination, 249, 475–479.
14. Hamsaveni, D.R., Prapulla, S.G., Divakar, S., 2001. Response surface methodological approach for the synthesis of isobutyl butyrate. Proc. Biochem. 36, 1103–1109.
15. Hanumantharao, Y., Kishore, M., Ravindhranath, K., 2011. Preparation and development of adsorbent carbon from Acacia farnesiana for de-fluoridation. Int. J. Plant Anim. Environ. Sci. 1, 209–223.
16. Hernández-Montoya, V., Ramírez-Montoya, L.A., Bonilla-Petriciolet, A., Montes-Morán, M.A., 2012. Optimizing the removal of fluoride from water using new carbons obtained by modification of nut shell with a calcium solution from egg shell. Biochem. Eng. J. 62, 1–7.
17. Hu, B.B., Wang, K., Wu, L., Yu, S.H., Antonietti, M., Titirici, M.M., 2010. Engineering carbon materials from the hydrothermal carbonization process of biomass. Adv. Mater. 22, 813–828.
18. Hummers, W., Offeman, R, 1958. Preparation of Graphitic Oxide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 1339-1339.
19. Inagaki, M., Kim, Y.A., Endo, M., 2011. Graphene: preparation and structural perfection. J. Mater. Chem. 21, 3280–3294.
20. Jun, T.Y, Arumugam, S.D., Latif, N.H.A., Abdulla, A.M., Latif, P.A., 2010. Effect of activation temperature and heating duration on physical characteristics of activated carbon prepared from agriculture waste. Environ. Asia 3, 143-148.
21. Karthikeyan, G., Siva Ilango, S., 2007. Fluoride sorption using Morringa indica -based activated carbon. Iran. J. Enviton. Health Sci. Eng. 4, 21–28.
22. Kloss, S., Zehetner, F., Dellantonio, A., et al., 2012. Characterization of slow pyrolysis biochars: effects of feedstocks and pyrolysis temperature on biochar properties. J. Environ. Qual. 41, 990–1000.
23. Korbahti, B.K., Tanyolac, A., 2008. Electrochemical treatment of simulated textilewastewater with industrial components and Levafix Blue CA reactive dye: optimization through response surface methodology. J. Hazard. Mater. 151, 422–431.
24. Lee, S., Cho, S., Wong, M., 1998. Rainfall prediction using artificial neural networks. J. Geogr. Inform. Decis. Anal. 2 (2), 233–242.
25. Lehmann, J., Rillig, M.C., Thies, J., Masiello, C.A., Hockaday, W.C., Crowley, D., 2011. Biochar effects on soil biota-A review. Soil Biol. Biochem. 43, 1812–1836.
26. Li, Y., Zhang, P., Du, Q., Peng, X., Liu, T., Wang, Z., Xia, Y., Zhang, W., Wang, K., Zhu, H., et al., 2011. Adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solution by graphene. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 363, 348–354.
27. Lounici, H., Addour, L., Belhocine, D., Grib, H., Nicolas, S., Bariou, B., 1997. Study of a new technique for fluoride removal from water. Desalination 114, 241–251.
28. Ma, W., Ya, F.Q., Han, M., Wang, R.J., 2007. Characteristics of equilibrium, kinetics studies for adsorption of fluoride on magnetic-chitosan particle. J. Hazard. Mater. 143, 296–302.
29. Mohan, D., Rajput, S., Singh, V.K., et al., 2011. Modeling and evaluation of chromium remediation from water using low cost bio-char, a green adsorbent. J. Hazard. Mater. 188, 319–333.
30. Mohan, D., Sharma, R., Singh, V.K., et al., 2012. Fluoride removal from water using bio-char, a green waste, low-cost adsorbent: equilibrium uptake and sorption dynamics modeling. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51, 900–914.
31. Roy, S., Das, P., 2016. Statistical optimization of defluoridation using novel activated carbon and cellulose from sugarcane bagasse: batch isotherm and kinetics study. J. Ind. Poll. Cont. 32(1), 368-380.
32. Roy, S., Das, P., 2016. Comparative analysis on treatment of fluoride containing solution using novel activated carbon prepared from lemon shell and wheat bran: Batch and column studies. Environ. Poll. Protec. 1, 40-53.
33. Sierra, U., Álvarez, P., Blanco, C., Granda, M., Santamaría, R., Menéndez, R., 2016. Cokes of different origin as precursors of graphene oxide. Fuel 166, 400–403.
34. Wu, Z., Ren, W., Gao, L., Liu, B., Jiang, C., Cheng, H., 2009. Synthesis of high-quality graphene with a pre-determined number of layers. Carbon 47, 493–499.
35. Yetilmezsoy, K., Demirel, S., 2008. Artificial neural network (ANN) approach for modeling of Pb (II) adsorption from aqueous solution by Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) shells. J. Hazar. Mater. 153(3), 1288-1300.
36. Yuan, J.H., Xu, R.K., Zhang, H., 2011. The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures. Biores. Technol. 102, 3488–3497.