Review Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
The effect of Transfer Factor as Immunotherapy comparing with the effect of BCG in Mice challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Jamal Bayed Salim.1,Ahmed K. Bolad2, Hamid Suliman A..2 andss Mujeeb A.Kabbashi3
1- Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and health Sciences, University of Kassala, Kassala, Sudan
2- Al- Neelain University, Faculty of Medicine
2- University of Khartoum, Faculty of Medicine
3-Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Sciences &Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
Background: Transfer Factor (TF) is an immune modulator which stimulates the cellular arm of the immune system (killer lymphocytes), activates immune cytokine synthesis and regulates immune function (Lawrence, 1955).TF is very effective in those diseases in which CMI plays a relevant role in protection and control of the disease, such as intracellular bacterial diseases (tuberculosis). ( Estrada Parra, et al1955). TF are low molecular weight products from immune cells that are able to transmit the ability to express delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and cell mediated immunity (CMI) from sensitized donors to non immune recipients (Kirkpatrick, 2000).
Objectives: The aim of this experimental study is to determine the protective efficacy of transfer factor (TF) as immunotherapy for mice in comparison to BCG.
Materials and methods: A total number of 102 mice were examined for their immunopotency and protective efficacy of Transfer factor (TF) comparing to the protective efficacy of BCG single and second repeated dose against challenge dose of M. tuberculosis (107 CFU) . A number of 20 mice were immunize with the attenuated strain of M. bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). After 21 days of BCG spleens of 10 tuberculous mice were removed aseptically for the preparation of TF. To evaluate the effect of TF 3 groups of inbred BALB/c male mice were injected with TF and challenged with virulent M. tuberculosis, followed by another 3 groups of inbred BALB/c male mice which were immunized with BCG single and second repeated dose. All mice with BCG and TF were tested for tuberculin skin test (TST) so as to determine susceptibility and resistance against tuberculosis, susceptible groups of mice were challenged with virulent M. tuberculosis. Followed by study of humoral response by immunization of a group of mice with immune serum and challenged with M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Followed by an experiment of group A and B for the susceptibility and resistance of the strains of mice. A group of dead mice For histological study of the infected lungs were examined.
Results:After three weeks of observations the mice of experiment(1) were tested for tuberculin skin test and the results were positive. Effectiveness determination of TF as protective efficacy was (83.3%). while effectiveness determination and protective efficacy of BCG first dose and boosting dose were (50%) and (70%) respectively. Humoral immunity response against M. tuberculosis showed negative reaction hence mortality rate was 100%, group B mice were resistant for BCG (Swiss white strain) and the results of histological study of the infected lungs showed lung bacilli that was M. tuberculosis.
Conclusions: The results indicated that administration of murine transfer factor (mTF) extracted and prepared from spleen of animal model (mice) as immunotherapy for challenged mice of MTB (H37Rv) showed a better results enhanced immune response in respect to delayed type hypersensitivity , survival rate and mortality rate suggesting that efficacy of mTF as immunotherapy for tuberculosis. Repeat dose of BCG enhanced immune response in respect to delayed type hypersensitivity , survival rate (70%) and mortality rate (30%), suggesting that efficacy of BCG vaccine may improve and give better results if booster doses are given.
Keywords: Transfer Factor (TF),BCG ,Mice and M. tuberculosis.