Research Article of American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anthelminthic Activity of Detarium Senegalense J.f Gmel (Fabaceae) Leaf Methanol Extract
1Ukwubile CA, 2Troy SM, 3 Ikpefan OE and 2Musa YD
1 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Biology Unit, School of Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Nigeria.
2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
3Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
Detarium senegalense is an importance medicinal plant used in North-east Nigeria and some African countries in traditional medicine. This present study evaluated the preliminary phytochemical screening and anthelminthic activity of methanol leaf extract. Phytochemical screening was carried out by solvent-solvent partitioning of leaf extract in chloroform, n-hexane, dioxane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. The results showed that methanol fraction contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and cardiac glycosides while the ethyl acetate fraction contained only flavonoids with no anthracenes. Ethanol fraction demonstrated the highest anthelminthic activity with a decreased time of paralysis and death in the various groups of earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) in dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 30 mg/mL, and 40 mg/mL. The time for paralysis and death for Group VII 400 mg/mL of extract were 5.0 ± 0.3min and 10.0 ± 1.02 min respectively. This result was compared with that of a standard anthelminthic drug piperazine citrate (USP) whose values were 12 ±1.01 min and 16 ± 1.02 min respectively for time of paralysis and death at p≤0.05 (one-way ANOVA). The results showed that D. senegalense leaf methanol extract possessed anthelminthic activities by osmotic shock at the clitellum portion of the earthworms, and this justifies the use of the plant extract in herbal medicine for the eradication of worms.
Keywords: Detarium senegalense, Phytochemicals, Anthelminthic, Earthworms, Piperazine citrate.