Trace Element Contents in Thyroid Cancer Investigated by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Analysis

Trace Element Contents in Thyroid Cancer Investigated by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Analysis

ZAICHICK Vladimir1 and ZAICHICK Sofia2
1 Radionuclide Diagnostics Department, Medical Radiological Research Centre, Russia
2 Laboratory of Dr. Gabriela Caraveo Piso, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, USA

American Journal of Cancer Research and Reviews

Background: Thyroid cancer is an internationally important health problem. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate whether significant changes in the thyroid tissue levels of Br, Cu, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn exist in the malignantly transformed thyroid.
Methods: Thyroid tissue levels of six trace elements (Br, Cu, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn) were prospectively evaluated in 41 patients with thyroid malignant tumors and 105 healthy inhabitants. Measurements were performed using 109Cd radionuclide-induced energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis Tissue samples were divided into two portions. One was used for morphological study while the other was intended for trace element analysis.
Results: It was found that contents of Br, Cu, and Rb were significantly higher (approximately 10, 3.4, and 1.4 times, respectively) and content of Zn were slightly, but significantly, lower (25%) in cancerous tissues than in normal tissues.
Conclusions: There are considerable changes in trace element contents in the malignantly transformed tissue of thyroid.

Keywords: Thyroid malignant tumors – Intact thyroid – Trace elements – Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
ZAICHICK Vladimir and ZAICHICK Sofia. Trace Element Contents in Thyroid Cancer Investigated by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Analysis. American Journal of Cancer Research and Reviews, 2018,2:5


1. Kilfoy BA, Zheng T, Holford TR, Han X, Ward MH, Sjodin A, Zhang Y, Bai Y, Zhu C, Guo GL, Rothman N, Zhang Y. International patterns and trends in thyroid cancer incidence, 1973-2002. Cancer Causes Control, 2009; 20: 525-531.
2. Jemal RSA, Xu J, Ward E . Cancer statistics, 2010. Cancer J Clin, 2010; 60(5):277-300.
3. Pellegriti G, Frasca F, Regalbuto C, Squatrito S, Vigneri R. Worldwide increasing incidence of thyroid cancer: update on epidemiology and risk factors. J Cancer Epidemiol, 2013; 2013:10.
4. Wiltshire JJ, Drake TM, Uttley L, Balasubramanian SP. Systematic review of trends in the incidence rates of thyroid cancer. Thyroid, 2016; 26(11): 1541-1552.
5. Jung K, Won Y, Kong H, Oh C, Lee DH, Lee JS. Cancer statistics in Korea: incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence in 2011. Cancer Res Treat, 2014; 46(2): 109-123.
6. Zaichick V, Tsyb A, Vtyurin BM. Trace elements and thyroid cancer. Analyst, 1995; 120: 817-821.
7. Zaichick V, Choporov Yu. Determination of the natural level of human intra-thyroid iodine by instrumental neutron activation analysis. J Radioanal Nucl Chem, 1996; 207(1): 153-161.
8. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Normal human intrathyroidal iodine. Sci Total Environ, 1997; 206(1): 39-56.
9. Zaichick V. Iodine excess and thyroid cancer. J Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine, 1998; 11(4): 508-509.
10. Zaichick V. In vivo and in vitro application of energy-dispersive XRF in clinical investigations: experience and the future. J Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine, 1998; 11(4): 509-510.
11. Zaichick V, Iljina T. Dietary iodine supplementation effect on the rat thyroid 131I blastomogenic action. In: Die Bedentung der Mengen- und Spurenelemente. 18. Arbeitstangung. Anke M, et al., editors. Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena, 1998, pp. 294-306.
12. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence of iodine in thyroid puncture biopsy specimens. J Trace and Microprobe Techniques, 1999; 17(2): 219-232.
13. Zaichick V. Human intrathyroidal iodine in health and non-thyroidal disease. In: New aspects of trace element research. Abdulla M, et al., editors. Smith-Gordon and Nishimura London and Tokyo, 1999, pp.114-119.
14. Zaichick V. Relevance of, and potentiality for in vivo intrathyroidal iodine determination. In Vivo Body Composition Studies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2000; 904: 630-632.
15. Cho BY, Choi HS, Park YJ, Lim JA, Ahn HY, Lee EK, Kim KW, Yi KH, Chung JK, Youn YK, Cho NH, Park do J, Koh CS. Changes in the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of thyroid cancer in Korea over the past four decades. , 2013; 23(7): 797-804.
16. Shan Z, Chen L, Lian X, Liu C, Shi B, Shi L, Tong N, Wang S, Weng J, Zhao J, Teng X, Yu X, Lai Y, Wang W, Li C, Mao J, Li Y, Fan C, Teng W. Iodine status and prevalence of thyroid disorders after introduction of mandatory universal salt iodization for 16 years in China: A cross-sectional study in 10 cities. Thyroid, 2016; 26(8): 1125-1130.
17. Zimmermann MB, Galetti V. Iodine intake as a risk factor for thyroid cancer: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies. Thyroid Res, 2015; 8:8.
18. McNally RJ, Blakey K, James PW, Gomez Pozo B, Basta NO, Hale J. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Great Britain, 1976-2005: age-period-cohort analysis. Eur J Epidemiol, 2012; 27(8): 615-622.
19. Ganly I, Nixon IJ, Wang LY, Palmer FL, Migliacci JC, Aniss A, Sywak M, Eskander AE, Freeman JL, Campbell MJ, Shen WT, Vaisman F, Momesso D, Corbo R, Vaisman M, Shaha A, Tuttle RM, Shah JP, Patel SG Survival from differentiated thyroid cancer: What has age got to do with it? Thyroid, 2015; 25(10): 1106-1114.
20. Zaichick V. Medical elementology as a new scientific discipline. J Radioanal Nucl Chem, 2006; 269: 303-309.
21. Beyersmann D, Hartwig A. Carcinogenic metal compounds: recent insight into molecular and cellular mechanisms. Arch Toxicol, 2008; 82(8): 493-512.
22. Martinez-Zamudio R, Ha HC. Environmental epigenetics in metal exposure. Epigenetics, 2011; 6(7): 820-827.
23. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Age-related changes of Br, Ca, Cl, I, K, Mg, Mn, and Na contents in intact thyroid of females investigated by neutron activation analysis. Curr Updates Aging, 2017; 1: 5.1
24. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Age-Related Changes of Ag, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn Contents in Intact Thyroid of Males Investigated by Neutron Activation Analysis. Curr Trends Biomedical Eng & Biosci, 2017; 4(4): 555644.
25. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Age-related changes of Ag, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn contents in intact thyroid of females investigated by neutron activation analysis. J Gerontol Geriatr Med, 2017; 3: 015
26. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Age-related changes of some trace element contents in intact thyroid of males investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis. MOJ Gerontol Ger, 2017; 1(5): 00028.
27. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Age-related changes of Br, Ca, Cl, I, K, Mg, Mn, and Na contents in intact thyroid of males investigated by neutron activation analysis. J Aging Age Relat Dis, 2017; 1(1): 1002
28. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Age-related changes of some trace element contents in intact thyroid of females investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis. Trends Geriatr Healthc, 2017, 1(1): 31-38.
29. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Trace element contents in adenocarcinoma of human prostate investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis. Journal of Adenocarcinoma, 2016; 1(1): 1-7.
30. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Trace element contents in adenocarcinoma of the human prostate gland investigated by neutron activation analysis. Cancer Research & Oncology, 2016; 1(1): 1-10.
31. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. The Comparison between the contents and interrelationships of 17 chemical elements in normal and cancerous prostate gland. Journal of Prostate Cancer, 2016; 1(1): 105
32. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Prostatic tissue levels of 43 trace elements in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma. Cancer and Clinical Oncology, 2016; 5(1): 79-94.
33. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Wynchank S. Intracellular zinc excess as one of the main factors in the etiology of prostate cancer. Journal of Analytical Oncology, 2016; 5(3): 124-131.
34. Zaichick V. Differences between 66 chemical element contents in normal and cancerous prostate. Journal of Analytical Oncology, 2017; 6(1): 37-56.
35. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Instrumental effect on the contamination of biomedical samples in the course of sampling. The Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 1996; 51(12): 1200-1205.
36. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. A search for losses of chemical elements during freeze-drying of biological materials. J Radioanal Nucl Chem, 1997; 218(2): 249-253.
37. Zaichick V. Applications of synthetic reference materials in the medical Radiological Research Centre. Fresenius J Anal Chem, 1995; 352: 219-223.
38. Zaichick S, Zaichick V. The Br, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn contents and interrelation in intact and morphologic normal prostate tissue of adult men investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis. X-Ray Spectr, 2011; 40(6): 464-469.
39. Zaichick S, Zaichick V. Method and portable facility for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis of zinc content in needle-biopsy specimens of prostate. X-Ray Spectr, 2010; 39: 83-89.
40. Zaichick V, Zaichick S, Davydov G. Method and portable facility for measurement of trace element concentration in prostate fluid samples using radionuclide-induced energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis. Nuclear Science and Techniques, 2016; 27(6): 1-8.
41. Zhu H, Wang N, Zhang Y, Wu Q, Chen R, Gao J, Chang P, Liu Q, Fan T, Li J, Wang J, Wang J. Element contents in organs and tissues of Chinese adult men. Health Phys, 2010; 98(1): 61-73.
42. Salimi J, Moosavi K, Vatankhah S, Yaghoobi A. Investigation of heavy trace elements in neoplastic and non-neoplastic human thyroid tissue: A study by proton – induced X-ray emissions. Iran J Radiat Res, 2004; 1(4): 211-216.
43. Ataulchanov IA. Age-related changes of manganese, cobalt, coper, zinc, and iron contents in the endocrine glands of females. Problemy Endocrinologii, 1969; 15(2): 98-102.
44. Reddy SB, Charles MJ, Kumar MR, Reddy BS, Anjaneyulu Ch, Raju GJN, Sundareswar B, Vijayan V. Trace elemental analysis of adenoma and carcinoma thyroid by PIXE method. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 2002; 196(3-4): 333-339.
45. Boulyga SF, Zhuk IV, Lomonosova EM, Kanash NV, Bazhanova NN. Determination of microelements in thyroids of the inhabitants of Belarus by neutron activation analysis using the k0-method. J Radioanal Nucl Chem, 1997; 222 (1-2): 11-14.
46. Tipton IH, Cook MJ. Trace elements in human tissue. Part II. Adult subjects from the United States. Health Phys, 1963; 9(2): 103-145.
47. Jundt FC, Purser KH, Kubo H, Schenk EA. Proton-induced X-ray analysis of trace elements in tissue sections. J Histochem Cytochem, 1974; 22(1): 1-6.
48. Al-Sayer H, Mathew TC, Asfar S, Khourshed M, Al-Bader A, Behbehani A, Dashti H. Serum changes in trace elements during thyroid cancers. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 2004; 260(1): 1-5.
49. Maeda K, Yokode Y, Sasa Y, Kusuyama H, Uda M. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B, 1987; 22(1-3): 188-190.
50. Kvicala J, Havelka J, Nemec J, Zeman V.. Selenium and rubidium changes in subjects with pathologically altered thyroid. Biol Trace Elem Res, 1992; 32: 253-258.
51. Yaman M, Akdeniz I. Sensitivity enhancement in flame atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of copper in human thyroid tissues. Anal Sci, 2004; 20(9): 1363-1366.
52. Zagrodzki P, Nicol F, Arthur JR, Słowiaczek M, Walas S, Mrowiec H, Wietecha-Posłuszny R. Selenoenzymes, laboratory parameters, and trace elements in different types of thyroid tumor. Biol Trace Elem Res, 2010; 134(1): 25-40.
53. Katoh Y, Sato T, Yamamoto Y. Determination of multielement concentrations in normal human organs from the Japanese. Biol Trace Elem Res, 2002; 90(1-3): 57-70.
54. Schroeder HA, Tipton IH, Nason AP. Trace metals in man: strontium and barium. J Chron Dis, 1972; 25(9): 491-517.
55. Zaichick V. Sampling, sample storage and preparation of biomaterials for INAA in clinical medicine, occupational and environmental health. In: Harmonization of Health-Related Environmental Measurements Using Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques. IAEA, Vienna, 1997, pp. 123-133.
56. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. A search for losses of chemical elements during freeze-drying of biological materials. J Radioanal Nucl Chem, 1997; 218(2): 249-253.
57. Zaichick V. Losses of chemical elements in biological samples under the dry aching process. Trace Elements in Medicine, 2004; 5(3):17–22.
58. Pavelka S. Radiometric determination of thyrotoxic effects of some xenobiotics. Rad Applic, 2016; 1(2): 155-158.
59. Maschkovsky MD. The sedatives. In: The Medicaments, 15th Ed., Novaya Volna, Moscow, 2005, pp.72-86.
60. Li Y, Trush MA. DNA damage resulting from the oxidation of hydroquinone by copper: role for a Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox cycle and reactive oxygen generation. Carcinogenesis, 1993; 14(7): 1303-1311.
61. Becker TW, Krieger G, Witte I. DNA single and double strand breaks induced by aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes in combination with copper (II). Free Radic Res, 1996; 24(5): 325-332.
62. Glass GA, Stark AA. Promotion of glutathione-gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-dependent lipid peroxidation by copper and ceruloplasmin: the requirement for iron and the effects of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. Environ Mol Mutagen, 1997; 29(1): 73-80.
63. Johnson GT, Lewis TR, Wagner WD. Acute toxicity of cesium and rubidium compounds. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1975; 32(2): 239-245.
64. Jones JM, Yeralan O, Hines G, Maher M, Roberts DW, Benson RW. Effects of lithium and rubidium on immune responses of rats. Toxicol Lett, 1990; 52: 163-168.
65. 19. Petrini M, Vaglini F, Carulli G, Azzara A, Ambrogi F, Grassi B. Rubidium is a possible supporting element for bone marrow leukocyte differentiation. Haematologica, 1990; 75: 27-31.
66. Bozym RA, Chimienti F, Giblin LJ, Gross GW, Korichneva I, Li Y, Libert S, Maret W, Parviz M, Frederickson CJ, Thompson RB. Free zinc ions outside a narrow concentration range are toxic to a variety of cells in vitro. Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2010; 235(6): 741-750.
67. Schwartz MK. Role of trace elements in cancer. Cancer Res, 1975; 35: 3481-3487.
68. Matusik RJ, Kreis C, McNicol P, Sweetland R, Mullin C, Fleming WH, Dodd JG. Regulation of prostatic genes: role of androgens and zinc in gene expression. Biochem Cell Biol, 1986; 64: 601-607.
69. Blok LJ, Grossmann ME, Perry JE, Tindall DJ. Characterization of an early growth response gene, which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, potentially involved in cell cycle regulation. Mol Endocrinol, 1995; 9(11): 1610-1620.
70. Zezerov YeG. Hormonal and molecular-biological factors of prostate cancer pathogenesis. Voprosy Oncologii, 2001; 47(2): 174-181.
71. Truong-Tran AQ, Ho LH, Chai F, Zalewski PD. Cellular zinc fluxes and the regulation of apoptosis/gene-directed cell death. J Nutr, 2000; 130(5S Suppl): 1459S-1466S.
72. Kontargiris E, Vadalouka A, Ragos V, Kalfakakou V. Zinc inhibits apoptosis and maintains NEP downregulation, induced by Ropivacaine, in HaCaT cells. Biol Trace Elem Res, 2012; 150: 460-466.
73. Liang D, Yang M, Guo B, Cao J, Yang L, Guo X, Li Y, Gao Z. Zinc inhibits H2O2-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis via MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways. Biol Trace Elem Res, 2012; 148: 420-429.
74. Zhang X, Liang D, Guo B, Yang L, Wang L, Ma J. Zinc inhibits high glucose-induced apoptosis in peritoneal mesothelial cells. Biol Trace Elem Res, 2012; 150: 424-432.