Review Article of American Journal of Histology and Cytology
Genetic Factors and Clinical Characteristics of Early Alzheimer
Soares, T. A. B ¹; Cursino, G. T ²; Donato H. M. G ³; Luis J. M. S 4; Ferreira K. M. L. M 5; Souza M. B. R 6.
1,2,3,4,5 Medical student – UNICAP;
6Professor/researcher at the Department of Biological Sciences and Health – UNICAP;
Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disorder of insidious onset that causes loss of memory and various cognitive disorders. Early AD represents 5% of all cases of this pathology, demonstrating a family recurrence that initially presents a relative preservation of cognition. Its development is directly related to mutated genes that cause changes in the proteins encoded by them. Objectives: To describe the genetic factors and clinical characteristics of early Alzheimer’s disease. Methodology: Articles published between 2000 and 2010 were pre-selected through the PubMed and SciELO databases, using the descriptor: alzheimer. A total of 73 texts were analyzed, of which 54 were selected after the study of titles and abstracts. Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 13 were included in the review because they refer to Early AD theme in the descriptors and abstracts. Results and Discussion: The genetic factor is considered crucial in the disease. The cases behave according to an autosomal dominant monogenic hereditary pattern in heterozygous individuals for the mutated gene (Aa), since the dominant gene is rare in the population. Studies suggest that the reduction in the level or activity of APP fragments plays a critical role in cognitive dysfunction, including the genes of PSEN1 and PSEN2 as well as responsible for this involvement. Early signs tend to be ignored because of their early character, presenting characteristics of behavioral changes, personality or depressive symptoms, with relative cognitive preservation. Conclusion: Early AD has low incidence and a great genetic relation, which makes it necessary to know the genetic factors for the specificity of the diagnosis since its clinical manifestation can confuse the family of the affected one due to its prematurity and the symptoms, being of great importance the diagnosis differential through complementary exams, along with the clinic, to the exclusion of other types of dementia.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s; Early; Genetic factor
How to cite this article:
Soares, T. A. B; Cursino, G. T; Donato H. M. G; Luis J. M. S; Ferreira K. M. L. M; Souza M. B. R. Genetic Factors and Clinical Characteristics of Early Alzheimer. American Journal of Histology and Cytology, 2018, 1:2. DOI: 10.28933/ajohc-2018-05-1802