Development of Novel Mineral Licks (Toka) and the Livestock Industry Boom in North-eastern Nigeria


Development of Novel Mineral Licks (Toka) and the Livestock Industry Boom in North-eastern Nigeria


Kubkomawa, H. I.

Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal Polytechnic, Pmb 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria


International Journal of Animal ResearchConventional mineral licks used in livestock production in tropical Africa, are usually imported, highly expensive and their cost/benefit ratio is often questionable. The broad objective of the study is to survey the production technique, utilization and marketing process of novel mineral licks (toka) in Adamawa State, North-Eastern Nigeria. Fifty (50) household producers of novel mineral licks (toka) were purposively selected for oral interviews, discussions and on-field observations. The results indicate that, ninety percent (90%) of novel mineral licks producers are between the ages of 20 and 50 years. Hundred percent (100%) of the people engaged in the business in the study area are women. Ninety percent (90%) of them are married with eighty percent (80%) of them having attended adult education. They had enough experience in the business with seventy percent (70%) having 5 – 15 years and all (100%) of them from minority tribes who are mostly Muslims. The common raw materials used for the production of novel mineral licks in Adamawa State include twelve (12) different plants and fifteen (15) different animal parts. The findings show that, novel mineral licks are utilized by livestock and humans in 6 different ways and, there is no elaborate and well developed marketing structure in the study area. The results indicate that, all the producers (100%) are responsible for retailing and selling of their products to earn additional income to augment the family revenue from sale of their annual farm products.


Keywords: Mineral Supplementation, Ruminants, Nigeria

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