Development of Multimix Composite Flour as Complementary Food for Infants in Malawi

Development of Multimix Composite Flour as Complementary Food for Infants in Malawi

Chikondi Memory Liomba1, 2*, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga1 and Angela Adhiambo1
1Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
2Department of Agriculture Extension Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Lilongwe, Malawi.

International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

Child malnutrition is a major problem in developing countries, such as Malawi. The most common forms of malnutrition are protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, zinc deficiency and Iron deficiency anemia.  The majority of complementary foods in these countries are cereal-based and are unable to meet the nutrient intakes recommended by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study was to improve iron and zinc contents of the staple maize-based complementary porridge. Raw materials used in the formulation of the complementary flour underwent household level food processing technologies such soaking, roasting and germination. The control complementary flour was prepared from 100% raw maize flour. Four complementary porridge flours were developed from blends of maize, millet, pigeon peas and pumpkins using varied proportions of the food ingredients.  Linear programming was used to optimize nutrients of the formulated products to meet micronutrient and macronutrients requirements of the target group. The formulated flour combinations and the control were evaluated based on the macronutrient and micronutrients targets for a recommended nutrient intake daily ration of complementary food for the age group 6 to 24 months old children. Complementary flours were analyzed for proximate composition using standard methods while iron and zinc were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The complementary flours in which millet, pumpkins and pigeon peas were incorporated provided significantly (p<0.05) higher amounts of iron, zinc, energy, protein than the control. All four formulations were able to meet iron, zinc, protein, carbohydrate and energy recommended nutrient for infants. Incorporating flours of millet, pigeon peas and pumpkins in maize flour is a potential way to increase the nutritive value of traditional complementary foods prepared from maize since it has shown to improve the amount of zinc, iron and protein which may in turn help reduce protein energy malnutrition and iron and zinc deficiencies.

Keywords: Iron deficiency; zinc deficiency; complementary flour; optimization; legumes; pumpkins, Finger millet; optimization

Abbreviations: PEM (protein energy malnutrition); CPV (cereal-pulse-vegetable), RNI (recommended nutrient intake); WHO (World health organization); RDA (Recommended daily intake)

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How to cite this article:
Chikondi Memory Liomba, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga, Angela Adhiambo. Development Of Multimix Composite Flour As Complementary Food For Infants In Malawi. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2018; x:xx.  DOI: 10.28933/xxxxx (This article has been withdrawn from International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research)


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