Research Article of International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
Development of Multimix Composite Flour as Complementary Food for Infants in Malawi
Chikondi Memory Liomba1, 2*, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga1 and Angela Adhiambo1
1Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
2Department of Agriculture Extension Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Lilongwe, Malawi.
Child malnutrition is a major problem in developing countries, such as Malawi. The most common forms of malnutrition are protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, zinc deficiency and Iron deficiency anemia. The majority of complementary foods in these countries are cereal-based and are unable to meet the nutrient intakes recommended by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study was to improve iron and zinc contents of the staple maize-based complementary porridge. Raw materials used in the formulation of the complementary flour underwent household level food processing technologies such soaking, roasting and germination. The control complementary flour was prepared from 100% raw maize flour. Four complementary porridge flours were developed from blends of maize, millet, pigeon peas and pumpkins using varied proportions of the food ingredients. Linear programming was used to optimize nutrients of the formulated products to meet micronutrient and macronutrients requirements of the target group. The formulated flour combinations and the control were evaluated based on the macronutrient and micronutrients targets for a recommended nutrient intake daily ration of complementary food for the age group 6 to 24 months old children. Complementary flours were analyzed for proximate composition using standard methods while iron and zinc were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The complementary flours in which millet, pumpkins and pigeon peas were incorporated provided significantly (p<0.05) higher amounts of iron, zinc, energy, protein than the control. All four formulations were able to meet iron, zinc, protein, carbohydrate and energy recommended nutrient for infants. Incorporating flours of millet, pigeon peas and pumpkins in maize flour is a potential way to increase the nutritive value of traditional complementary foods prepared from maize since it has shown to improve the amount of zinc, iron and protein which may in turn help reduce protein energy malnutrition and iron and zinc deficiencies.
Keywords: Iron deficiency; zinc deficiency; complementary flour; optimization; legumes; pumpkins, Finger millet; optimization
Abbreviations: PEM (protein energy malnutrition); CPV (cereal-pulse-vegetable), RNI (recommended nutrient intake); WHO (World health organization); RDA (Recommended daily intake)
How to cite this article:
Chikondi Memory Liomba, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga, Angela Adhiambo. Development Of Multimix Composite Flour As Complementary Food For Infants In Malawi. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2018; x:xx. DOI: 10.28933/xxxxx (This article has been withdrawn from International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research)
1. UNICEF and WHO/World Bank (2012). Levels And Trends In Child Malnutrition: UNICEF-WHO-The World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates.” United Nations Children’s Fund, World Health Organization and World Bank, 2012.
2. Hotz C. and Gibson R.S. Participatory nutrition education and adoption of new feeding practices are associated with improved adequacy of complementary diets among rural Malawian children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2005) 59, 226–237, (2005)
3. National Statistical Office (NSO) [Malawi] and ICF. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16. Zomba, Malawi, and Rockville, Maryland, USA. NSO and ICF, (2016)
4. Gibson R.S., Hotz C., Temple L., Yeudall L.F., Mtimuni B, and Ferguson E. Dietary strategies to combat deficiencies of iron, zinc, and vitamin A in developing countries: Development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 21 (2), 2000.
5. FAO/WHO. Human Vitamin and mineral requirements: Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert Consultation Bangkok, Thailand. FAO: Rome.2002.
6. Anyango, J.O., de Kock, H.L., Taylor, J.R.N. Evaluation of the functional quality of cowpea-fortified traditional African sorghum foods using instrumental and descriptive sensory analysis. Food Science and Technology 44, 2126-2133, 2011
7. Dhiman A, Sharma K, Surekha A. Functional constituents and processing of pumpkin. Food Sci. Technol. 46: 411-417, 2009
8. Lee YK, Chung WI, Ezura H. Efficient plant regeneration via organogenesis in winter squash (Cucurbita maxima). Plant Sci 164:413-418, 2003
9. See EF, Wan NWA, Noor A.A.A. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of breads supplemented with pumpkin flour. Asian Food J 14:123-130, 2007.
10. Soetan KO, Oyewole OE. The need for adequate processing to reduce the anti-nutritional factors in plants used as human foods and animal feeds. A review. Afr. J. Food Sci. 3(9): 223-231, 2009
11. Black RE, Brown KH, Becker S. Malnutrition is a determining factor in diarrheal duration, but not incidence, among young children in a longitudinal study in rural Bangladesh. Am J Clin Nutr: 39:87–94, 1984.
12. Nzewi D. and Egbuonu A.C.C. (2011) Effect of boiling and roasting on proximate composition of asparagus (VignaSesquipedalis). African Journal of Biotechnology: Vol 10, No 54 (2011).
13. Olanipekun O.T., Omenna E.C., Olapade O.A., Suleiman P. and Omodara O.G. Effect of Boiling and roasting on the nutrient composition of kidney beans seed flour: Sky journal of Food Science. Vol 4(2), pp. 024-029, 2015.
14. Manary M., Ndkeha M., Maleta K., and Briend A. Home based therapy for severe malnutrition with ready to use food. Archives of Disease in childhood. Vol 89(6), 2004.
15. Paragya S, Raghuvanshi RS. Finger millet for food and nutritional security. Afr. J. Food Sci. 6 (4): 77-84, 2012
16. AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (19th, Ed.). Official Method of Analysis. Washington DC, 2012.
17. WHO/FAO (World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutriation.2nd ed. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2004
18. Yibeltal J., Menen Z., Pragya S., Hiwot A. Formulation of Maize – Based Complementary Porridge Using Orange – Fleshed Sweet Potato and Bean Flour for Children Aged 6-23 Months in Kachabira Woreda, Southern Ethiopia. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering 2016, 6(4): 87-101, 2016.
19. Paragya S, Raghuvanshi RS (2012). Finger millet for food and nutritional security. Afr. J. Food Sci. 6 (4): 77-84
20. Bachar K, Mansour E, Ben Khaled A, Mabrouka A, Haddad M, BenYahya L, El-Jarray N, Ferchichi A. Fiber content and mineral composition of the finger millet of the Oasis of Gabes. Tunisia. J. Agric. Sci. 5 (2): 219, 2013.
21. Barugahara E.I., Mbugua S., Karuri E., and Gakenia M. (2015). Improving the nutritional value of traditional finger millet porridges for children aged 7-24 months in Bujenje County of Western Uganda. African journal of food science. Vol. 9(8), pp. 426-436
22. O. A. Ojiako, C. A. Ogbuji, N. C. Agha, and V. A. Onwuliri, “The proximate, mineral, and toxicant compositions of four possible food security crops from Southeastern Nigeria,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1203–1209, 2010.
23. Ogbe AO, Affiku JH. Proximate study, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of Moringa oleifera leaves harvested from Lafia, Nigeria: potential benefits in poultry nutrition and health. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Food Sci. 1(3):296-308, 2012
24. Muhimbula, H. S., Abdulsudi, I. and Kinabo, J. Formulation and sensory evaluation of complementary foods from local, cheap and readily available cereals and legumes in Iringa, Tanzania. African Journal of Food Science, 5(1): 26 – 31, 2011.
25. Fasoyiro S.B., Akande S.R, Arowora K.A., Sodeko O.O, Sulaiman P.O., C. O. Olapade C.O., and Odiri C.E. (2010). Physico-chemical and sensory properties of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flours. African Journal of Food Science Vol. 4(3), pp. 120-126, March 2010
26. Hegstad HG. Nutritional and Health benefits of Soybean. Soy Protein Quality Evaluation Report, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food and Nutrition Paper No. 71, Rome, Italy, 2008.
27. Akubor P.I.Effect of processing methods on the chemical composition on composition and functional properties of pigeon pea seed. Nigerian Journal of Nutrition Science 2(2): 1-8, 2007.
28. Amadou I, Mahamadou EG, Guo-Wei L. Millets: Nutritional composition, some health benefits and processing-A review. Emir. J. Food Agric. 25 (7): 501-508, 2013.
29. Compaore WR, Nikièma PA, Bassole HIN, Savadogo A, Hounhouigan DJ. Nutritional properties of enriched local complementary flours. Adv. J. Food Sci. Technol. 3(1): 31-39, 2011.
30. Elinge CM, Muhammad A, Atiku FA, Itodo AO, Peni IJ, Sanni OM, Mbongo AN. Proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L) seeds Extract. Int. J. Plant Res. 2 (5): 146-150, 2012
31. Inyanga C.U., and Zakari U.M. Effect of germination and fermentation of pearl millet on proximate, chemical and sensory properties of instant fura. Pakistan Journal of nutrition 7(1): 9-12, 2008.
32. Platel K, Eipeson SW, Srinivasan R. Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). J Agric Food Chem 58:8100–3, 2010.
33. Chaudhary N. and Vyas S. Effect of Germination on Proximate Composition and Anti Nutritional Factor of Millet (Ragi) Based Premixes. International Journal of food and nutrition sciences 3(4), 2014.
34. Dewey, K.G. & Brown, K.H. Update on Technical Issues Concerning Complementary Feeding of Young Children in Developing Countries and Implications for Intervention Programs. Food Nutr. Bull. 24: 5-28, 2003.
35. Obilana A.B. Overview: Importance of Millets in Africa. AFRIPRO, Workshop on the Proteins of Sorghum and Millets: Enhancing Nutritional and Functional Properties for Africa Paper 02, 2003.
36. UNICEF (2012). WHO/World Bank. Levels And Trends In Child Malnutrition: UNICEF-WHO-The World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates.” United Nations Children’s Fund, World Health Organization and World Bank, 2012.
37. WHO. Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition. Report of a joint WHO/FAO/UNU expert consultation. WHO Technical Report Series. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 935), 2007.
38. FAO/WHO. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Human energy requirements. Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome, Italy, 2004.