The practice of counseling in Pharmacy: Patients’ perspectives


The practice of counseling in Pharmacy: Patients’ perspectives


Laila A. Layqah1, Yousif S. Alakeel2, Jinan Z. Shamou3
1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), Research Office, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences KSAU-hs),King Abdul-Aziz Medical City(KAMC) – Ministry of National Guard–Health Affairs (MNGHA); 2 King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS), College of Pharmacy/King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) –Ministry of National Guard–Health Affairs
3Medical Student / Xi’an Jiaotong University, China.


 International Journal of Hospital Pharmacy

Aim: The objective of the study was to assess pharmacists’ counseling practices from the patient perspective using the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Medication Counseling Behavior Guidelines (MCBG) questionnaire. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted over 4 months in the outpatients section of the pharmacy department in two tertiary care hospitals: King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, and King Fahad Medical City. Participants were randomly selected to complete the USP-MCBG questionnaire, and gave their full consent to the data collector. USP-MCBG questionnaire is an interactive approach between the patient and the pharmacist, which takes into account the patient’s special needs, beliefs and perceptions about medication use .The questionnaire included 33 items with a two-point response scale. The questionnaire was divided into four sections corresponding to the four stages of the medication counseling process. Results: During the study period, 520 subjects were enrolled and of these, 486 responded to our questionnaire (response rate: 93%). The study population was gender balanced; most respondents (88%) were Saudi nationals, and 49% reported having at least high school education. There were no differences between the socio-demographic profiles of participants at the two study sites. The overall mean USP-MCBG score of satisfaction was 3.18 ± 0.11 (highest score is 5). Within subsections of the questionnaire, ‘Management of treatment’ scored the highest (1.14 ± 0.05) and ‘Communication’ scored the lowest (0.35 ± 0.03). In terms of medication counseling, more than >80% of patients had a positive perception and were satisfied with the performance of outpatient pharmacists. At almost all stages of the counseling process, there was a slightly inversely proportional relationship between patient age and satisfaction with pharmacist performance.Conclusion: Using the USP-MCB guidelines, patients’ perception of and satisfaction with pharmacists counseling in the outpatient setting was positive. Greater effort is needed to ensure effective counseling services in particular subpopulations, such as in the elderly. In general, patients were more satisfied with pharmacist counseling pertinent to “management of treatment”, however, they were less satisfied regarding the pharmacists’ way of communication.


Keywords: Assessment, Patient counseling, Pharmacists, Perspective, education


Free Full-text PDF


How to cite this article:
Laila A. Layqah, Yousif S. Alakeel, Jinan Z. Shamou.The practice of counseling in Pharmacy: Patients’ perspectives. International Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 2018,3:17.


References:

  1. Wabe, N. T.; Raju, N. J.; Angamo, M. T., Knowledge, attitude and practice of patient medication counseling among drug dispensers in North West Ethiopia. 2011.
  2. Blom, L.; Krass, I., Introduction: The role of pharmacy in patient education and counseling. Patient Education and Counseling 2011, 83 (3), 285-287.
  3. Palaian, S.; Chhetri, A. K.;  Prabhu, M.;  Rajan, S.; Shankar, P., Role of pharmacist in counseling diabetes patients. Internet J Pharmacol 2005, 4, 1-13.
  4. Puumalainen, I., Development of instruments to measure the quality of patient counselling. University of Kuopio Finland: 2005.
  5. Offor, I.; Enato, E., Patients’ Assessment of Pharmacists’ Medication Counseling in a Psychiatric Hospital in Nigeria. 2011; Vol. 10.
  6. Puumalainen, I.; Kansanaho, H.;  Varunki, M.;  Ahonen, R.; Airaksinen, M., Usefulness of the USP Medication Counselling Behavior Guidelines. Pharm World Sci 2005, 27 (6), 465-8.
  7. Shani, S.; Morginstin, T.; Hoffman, A., Patients’ perceptions of drug therapy counseling in Israel. The Israel Medical Association journal: IMAJ 2000, 2 (6), 438-441.
  8. American Society of Health-System, P., ASHP guidelines on pharmacist-conducted patient education and counseling. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 1997, 54 (4), 431-434.
  9. Pilnick, A., ” Pharmacy counselling”: a study of the pharmacist/patient encounter using conversation analysis. 1997.
  10. Berger, B. A., Communication skills for pharmacists: building relationships, improving patient care. Amer Pharmacists Assn: 2005.
  11. Hussain, S.; Hussain, A. A. S.;  Hussain, K.;  Asif, M. A.;  Khalil, M. M.;  Rahman, D. A.;  Charara, R.;  Alsuwaidi, S.; AlKhani, R., Pharmacist–patient counselling in Dubai: assessment and reflection on patient satisfaction. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy: Science and Practice 2013, ejhpharm-2012.
  12. Al-Arifi, M. N., Patients’ perception, views and satisfaction with pharmacists’ role as health care provider in community pharmacy setting at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharm J 2012, 20 (4), 323-30.
  13. Perri, M.; Kotzan, J.;  Pritchard, L.;  Ozburn, W.; Francisco, G., OBRA’90: The Impact on Pharmacists and Patients: Two related studies of pharmacists and patients in Georgia show that pharmacists are counseling more frequently since implementation of the federal law in January 1993. American pharmacy 1995, 35 (2), 24-28.
  14. Alaqeel, S.; Abanmy, N. O., Counselling practices in community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. BMC health services research 2015, 15 (1), 557.
  15. Makeen, H. A., Clinical pharmacists as medication therapy experts in diabetic clinics in Saudi Arabia – Not just a perception but a need. Saudi Pharm J 2017, 25 (6), 939-943.
  16. Alturki, M.; Khan, T. M., A study investigating the level of satisfaction with the health services provided by the Pharmacist at ENT hospital, Eastern Region Alahsah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharm J 2013, 21 (3), 255-60.
  17. Svarstad, B. L.; Bultman, D. C.; Mount, J. K., Patient counseling provided in community pharmacies: effects of state regulation, pharmacist age, and busyness. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2004, 44 (1), 22-9.
  18. Al-Jedai, A.; الميمان, د. أ., Pharmacy Practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 2016; p 171.
  19. Schommer, J. C.; Wiederholt, J. B., Pharmacists’ perceptions of patients’ needs for counseling. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 1994, 51 (4), 478-485.
  20. Griffith, N. L.; Schommer, J. C.; Wirsching, R. G., Survey of inpatient counseling by hospital pharmacists. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 1998, 55 (11), 1127-1133.
  21. Awad, A.; Al-Ebrahim, S.; Abahussain, E., Pharmaceutical care services in hospitals of Kuwait. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2006, 9 (2), 149-157.
  22. Kimberlin, C. L.; Jamison, A. N.;  Linden, S.; Winterstein, A. G., Patient counseling practices in US pharmacies: effects of having pharmacists hand the medication to the patient and state regulations on pharmacist counseling. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 2011, 51 (4), 527-534.