Research Article of International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
In Vivo effects of dosage of leaf, bark and root extracts of V. paradoxa on diarhoea-induced albino rats
M. B. FBALANA 1*, M. O. BANKOLE2 and A. M. OMEMU3
1*Department of Biological Sciences, AL- Hikmah University Ilorin, P.M.B 1601, Nigeria. 2Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB), P.M.B 2240, Nigeria.3Department of Food Service and Tourism, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB), P.M.B 2240, Nigeria.
In vivo study of different dosages (50mg/kg and 100mg/kg) of various solvent extracts (water, methanol, omidun and sterile omidun) of Leaf, Root and Bark of Vitellaria paradoxa were examined on male and female albino rats induced with diarrhoea- causing microorganisms (Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC ATCC 43889), Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC ATCC 43887), Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922). The rats were randomly assigned into four groups (A-D), group A rats infected with Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC ATCC 43887) and later treated with ciprofloxacin, group B rats were infected with EPEC only, group C rats were infected with EPEC and treated with 50mg/kg concentration of methanol extract of leaf of V. paradoxa, while group D rats were not infected nor treated. The procedure was repeated for other test diarrhoea-causing microorganisms and 100mg/kg concentrations of all the solvent extracts of root and bark respectively. The rats were observed hourly for six hours for the presence or absence of diarrhoea. Haematological studies was conducted on the blood samples of the rats. All extracts of V. paradoxa have anti-diarrhoea effect at both concentrations tested against all the tested diarrhoeagenic bacteria. Although the type of diarrhoea-inducing microorganisms did not significantly affect the activity of the plant parts and 50mg/ml concentration of water extract exhibited more significant reduction in diarrhoea symptoms than 100mg/ml concentration of other solvent extracts. Bark and leaf extracts of V. paradoxa was also more effective at reducing symptoms of diarrhoea in the experimental rats than root extracts. Levels of the major blood parameters (White Blood Cell, Red Blood Cell, Haemoglobulin and Packed Cell Volume) were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the rats treated with the plant parts but slightly higher in rats treated with bark, followed by root and leaves.
Keywords: Omidun, Vitellaria paradoxa, Diarrhoeagenic
How to cite this article:
M. B. FBALANA, M. O. BANKOLE and A. M. OMEMU. In Vivo effects of dosage of leaf, bark and root extracts of V. paradoxa on diarhoea-induced albino rats.International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 2018, 3:8.
1. Abubakar K, Abdulkadir R, Famoriyo PO (2013). “Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal effect of Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn F (Sapotaceae) stem bark extract,” Advances in Life Science and Technology, 2013. vol. 15, pp. 2224-7181.
2. Akinpelu AO, Amanigbo LEF, Olojede AO (2011). “Health implications of cassava production and consumption,” J Agric. Soc Res. vol. 11, no. 1, pp 118– 125.
3. Asuzu IU, Onu OU (1994). “Anthelmintic activity of the ethanolic extract of Piliostigma thonningii bark in Ascaridia galli infected chickens,” Fitoterapia, vol. LXV, pp. 291–297.
4. Awoleye F (1995). “Effects of seed sources on the growth of seedlings of Vitellaria paradoxa in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria,” Nig J. Bot. vol. 8, pp. 65-69.
5. Bibitha B, Jisha VK, Salitha CV, Mohan S, Valsa AK (2002). “Antibacterial activity of different plant extracts: A short communication,” Indian Journal of Microbiology vol. 42, pp. 361-363.
6. Cheesbrough M (2002). “Medical laboratories manual for tropical countries,” Cambridge University Press. pp. 479.
7. Chineke CA, Ologun AG, Ikeobi CON (2006) “Haematological parameters in rabbit breeds and crosses in humid tropics” Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 9 (11), 2102 – 2106.
8. Collinson C, Zewdie-Bosuener A (1999). “Shea butter Markets: Their Implications for Ghanaian Shea butter Processors and Exporters” A Report 2403. Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich. pp. 20.
9. Davicino R, Mattar MA, Casali YA, Graciela S, Margarita E, Micalizzi B (2007). “Antifungal activity of plant extracts used in folk medicine in Argentina,” Revista Peruana de Biología. vol. 14, pp. 247-251.
10. Duke JA (1992). Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 22-25.
11. Ebanu RU, Madunagu BE, Ekpe ED, Oung IN (1999). “Microbiological Exploitation of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids from Garcinia kola, Borreria ocymoodes, kola nitida and Citrus aurantifoils,” J Appli Bacteriol. vol. 2, pp. 398-401, 1999.
12. El- Mahmood AM, Doughari JH, LadanN (2013). “Antimicrobial screening of stem bark extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa against some enteric pathogenic microorganisms,” Afr. J. Pharm. Vol. 2, pp. 89-94.
13. Govindaraji SV, Kannan NK, Jayakumararaj R (2008). “In Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity Using Crude Extracts of Catharanthus roseus L. (G.) Don,” Ethnobotanical Leaflets. vol. 12, pp. 1013- 1018.
14. ICRAF (2007). “International Centre for Research in Agroforestry,” Agroforestree Database. 2000. pp15.
15. Karou SD, Nadembeg WM, IIboudo DP. “Medicinal plant with numerous potencies,” Afr. J. Biotech. vol. 6, pp. 2953-2959.
16. Kelly BA, Hardy O, Bouvet JM (2004). “Temporal and spatial genetic dynamics in Vitellaria paradoxa (shea tree) in an agroforestry system in Southern Mali,” Mol. Ecol, vol. 13, pp. 1231-1240.
17. Kumar S, Jenna PK, Sabnam S, Kumari M, Tripathy PK (2010). Antibacteria activity of the flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa on different microorganism. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 4: 3225- 3228.
18. Lamien N, Tigabu M, Guinko S, Oden PC (2007). Variations in dendrometric and fruiting characters of Vitellaria paradoxa population and multivariate models for estimation of fruit yield. Agroforestry Syst. 69: 1-11.
19. Michiels JA, Kevers C, Pincemail J, Defraigne JO, Dommes J (2012). Extraction conditions can greatly influence antioxidant capacity assays in plant food matrices. Food Chemistry. 130 (4): 986-993.
20. Ndukwe IG, Amupitan JO, Isah Y, Adegke KS (2001). “Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the crude extracts from the root, stem bark and leaves of Vitellaria paradoxa (GAERTN. F),” Afr. J. Biotechnol. Vol. 6, pp. 1905-1909.
21. Naderi MM, Sarvari A, Milanifar A (2012). “Regulations and ethical considerations in animal experiments: international laws and Islamic perspectives,” Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology. vol. 4, no. 3, pp.114–120.
22. Otimenyin OS, Uguru OM, Akanbi BE (2008). “Antidiarrhea Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Momordica balsamina and Stachytarpheta indica in Rats,” Journal of Natural Products. vol. 1, pp. 36‐45.
23. Okwu DE, Josiah C (2006). “Evaluation of the chemical composition of two Nigerian Medicinal plants,” African Journal of Biotechnolgy. vol. 5, pp. 357-361.
24. Popoola L, Tee NT (2001). “Potentials of Vitellaria Paradoxa Gaertn F. in Agroforestry systems in Benue State,” Nigerian Journal of Ecology. vol. 16, pp. 20-24.
25. Saad M, Al-Said A, Al-Barak S (2011). “Extraction of insulin like compound from bitter melon plants,” Am. J. Drugs Disc. Dev. vol. 1, pp. 1-7.
26. Saha BK, Sarkar A, Basak R, Chatterjee M (2001). α 25-dihydrooxycholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) suppresses the effect of streptozotocin- induced diabetes during chemical rat liver carcinogenesis. Cell Biol. Int. 25: 227-237.
27. Soetan KO, Akinrinde AS, Ajibade TO (2013). ”Preliminary studies on the haematological parameters of cockerels fed raw and processed guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor)” in 38th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production, 49-52.
28. Yusha’u M, Bukar A, Balarabe AI (2008). “Prevalence and sensitivity of enterobacterial isolates from patients with urinary tract infections to Acalypha wilkisenia extracts,” Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal for the Tropics, vol. 5, pp. 72-76.