Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students about Pharmacovigilance in Oman

Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students about Pharmacovigilance in Oman

*1 Sujith Haridass, 2Mohamed Azmi Hassali, 1Noof Ali Salim Al-Shekaili, 2Ahmed Ibrahim Nouri

*1School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Nursing
2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia , Pulau Penang, 11800, Malaysia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Reviews

Background: In the modern world, patient safety and the safe use of medicines are of a high priority. Huge competition exists among pharmaceutical manufacturers resulting in medicinal products being registered and marketed in many countries simultaneously. Because of this, adverse drug reactions (ADR) may not always be readily identified or monitored systematically. In order to minimize or prevent harm to patients arising from their drugs, pharmacists can play a vital role in both ADR reporting and pharmacovigilance activities. Rates of ADR reporting can be improved by promoting awareness of its importance and the procedures for doing so, and this is best done during undergraduate pharmacy education. Pharmacy students must be trained well on how to recognize, prevent, and report ADRs. Lack of knowledge about ADR reporting process is associated with negative attitudes towards the pharmacovigilance.
Objectives: We aim in this study to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge and perception towards pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting.
Methodology: a Cross-sectional study was conducted between in the period of February 2017 to April 2017 using a self-administered questionnaire to a sample population of 118 pharmacy students from University of Nizwa and Oman Medical College. Univariate analysis was done to the collected data.
Results: The response rate of the survey was 79%. The study revealed that mean knowledge score of the pharmacy students for pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting was 8.65 (±2.91) Significant differences in the mean score of the knowledge in domains of study institution and nationality of the pharmacy students were observed. Majority of the respondents answered correctly the definitions of pharmacovigilance (61%) and ADRs (55.9%). About 81.35%of the respondents answered correctly about the question related to the required data that should be collected for the assessment of a suspected ADR. Almost 61 % of the pharmacy students had a correct knowledge about the types of ADRs that should report. Almost 65% of the pharmacy students agreed that they can perform ADR reporting during their clerkship/internship program.
Conclusion: Respondents had adequate knowledge on pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting. However, pharmacy students lack an in-depth understanding of concepts about ADR reporting and may require more information on the national pharmacovigilance program and reporting process of ADRs. Educational intervention should be done in order to increase the awareness of pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting process among pharmacy students

Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, Adverse drug reactions, Knowledge, Perception, students

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Sujith Haridass, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Noof Ali Salim Al-Shekaili, Ahmed Ibrahim Nouri. Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students about Pharmacovigilance in Oman.Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Reviews, 2017; 1:1.


1. Abdel-Latif, M. M., & Abdel-Wahab, B. A. (2015). Knowledge and awareness of adverse drug reactions and pharmacovigilance practices among healthcare professionals in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 23(2), 154-161. doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2014.07.005
2. Ahmad, A., Patel, I., Balkrishnan, R., Mohanta, G. P., & Manna, P. K. (2013). An evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of Indian pharmacists towards adverse drug reaction reporting: A pilot study. Perspectives in clinical research, 4(4), 204.doi: 10.4103/2229-3485.120168
3. Su, C., Ji, H., & Su, Y. (2010). Hospital pharmacists’ knowledge and opinions regarding adverse drug reaction reporting in Northern China. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety, 19(3), 217-222. doi: 10.1002/pds.1792
4. Directorate General of Pharmaceutical Affairs and Drug Control. (2015).Annual report.
Sultanate of Oman:Ministry of Health. Retrieved from fb5-6279-453c-ad35-753737559e74
5. Elkalmi, R. M., Hassali, M. A., Ibrahim, M. I. M., Widodo, R. T., Efan, Q. M., & Hadi, M.A. (2011). Pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions about pharmacovigilance in Malaysian public universities. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 75(5), 96. doi: 10.5688/ajpe75596
6. Hartge, P. (1999). Raising response rates: getting to yes. Epidemiology, 105-107.Retrieved from
7. Jeetu, G., & Anusha, G. (2010). Pharmacovigilance: a worldwide master key for drug safety monitoring. Journal of Young Pharmacists, 2(3), 315-320. doi:10.4103/0975-1483.66802
8. Jose, J., Jimmy, B., Al-Ghailani, A. S. H., & Al Majali, M. A. (2014). A cross sectional pilot study on assessing the knowledge, attitude and behavior of community pharmacists to adverse drug reaction related aspects in the Sultanate of Oman. Saudi pharmaceutical journal, 22(2), 163-169.
9. Lopez-Gonzalez, E., Herdeiro, M. T., & Figueiras, A. (2009). Determinants of under-reporting of adverse drug reactions. Drug safety, 32(1), 19-31.doi: 10.2165/00002018-200932010-00002
10. Lydeard, S. (1996). Commentary: avoid surveys masquerading as research. BMJ, 313(7059), 733-734.doi.10.1136/bmj.313.7059.733
11. Rajiah, K., Maharajan, M. K., & Nair, S. (2015). Pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions about adverse drug reactions reporting and pharmacovigilance. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal.
12. Reddy, V. L., Pasha, S. J., Rathinavelu, M., & Reddy, Y. P. (2014). Assessment of knowledge, attitude and perception of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting among the pharmacy students in south India. IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci, 9(2), 34-43.
Retrieved from
13. Shakeel, S., Iffat, W., Anjum, F., Bushra, R., Ibrahim, S., & Shafiq, S. (2014). Emerging need of pharmacovigilance: perspectives of future pharmacist in Pakistan. Int J Pharm Teach Pract, 5(5), 966-969.Retrieved from : d_of_Pharmacovigilance_Perspectives_of_future_pharmacist_in_Pakistan/links/02e7e53bb 9ceba3a0e000000.pdf
14. Sharma, S., Sharma, J., & Aggarwal, T. (2012). A survey on knowledge and perception of pharmacy students towards adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical & Clinical Research. Retrieved from
15. Showande, J. S., & Oyelola, F. T. (2013). The concept of adverse drug reaction reporting: awareness among pharmacy students in a Nigerian university. Internet Journal of Medical Update-EJOURNAL, 8(1).Retrieved from
16. Sivadasan, S., Chyi, N. W., Ching, A. L. S., Ali, A. N., Veerasamy, R., Marimuthub, K., & Arumugama, D. S. (2014). Knowledge and perception towards pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting among medicine and pharmacy students. WJPPS, 3(3),1652-1676.Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/DELL/ Downloads/ article_wjpps_ 1396446337%20(8) . pdf
17. Tabassum, R., Bhat, M. Y., & Farhat, S. (2015). descriptive study of knowledge of Pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions among second professional undergraduate medical students in a teaching
18. Upadhyaya, P., Seth, V., Moghe, V. V., Sharma, M., & Ahmed, M. (2012). Knowledge of adverse drug reaction reporting in first year postgraduate doctors in a medical college. Ther Clin Risk Manag, 8, 307-312.
19. Varughese, S.S., Al Rubaiai, M.H., & Al Maskari, M.J.(2011). Impact of Comprehensive Efforts on the Performance of a Pharmacovigilance System in Oman. Paper presented at the meeting of the Third international Conference for Improving Use of Medicines, Turkey.Retrived from
20. World Health Organization. (2002). Safety of medicines: a guide to detecting and reporting adverse drug reactions: why health professionals need to take action. Retrieved from
21. World Health Organization. (2006). The safety of medicines in public health programmes: pharmacovigilance, an essential tool. Retrieved from