Phytochemical analyses of selected medicinal plants

Ethnobotanical importance and phytochemical analyses of some selected medicinal plants used in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

*Olanipekun, Mary .K , Adewuyi, Damilare and Adedeji, Damilola. E

Department, Plant Science and Biotechnology, Ekiti-State University, Ado-Ekiti.

The study investigated the ethnobotanical importance, phytochemical and proximate compositions of some selected medicinal plants such as Enantia chlorantha (Annonaceae), Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae), Telfaria occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) and Morinda lucida (Rubiaceae) in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The review of the folk knowledge of the plants revealed that they were used in treating ailments such as gastrointestinal infections, malaria fever, typhoid, dermatitis, ringworm, jaundice, dysentery and used as antiseptic, digestive stimulant, blood tonic and bloJHMR-CODEod booster. The qualitative screening of the plants revealed that all the plants contained a considerable amount of bio-active ingredients such as alkaloids, Saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, Terpenoids and total phenols. However, Momordica charantia has the highest number of alkaloids (20.68±0.27), Saponins (11.40±0.59) while Morinda lucida and Telfaria occidentalis have the lowest number of alkaloids (6.62±0.34) and Saponins (1.24±0.09). Similarly, Enantia chlorantha has the highest amount of flavonoids (15.56±0.00) and tannins (0.44±0.05). Morinda lucida stem bark has the lowest number of tannins (0.03±0.00) and flavonoids (0.94±0.00). Morinda lucida leaf has the highest amount of cardiac glycosides (0.07±0.03) while Morinda lucida stem bark and Momordica charantia does not have cardiac glycosides. Telfaria occidentalis has Terpenoids (0.09±0.00). Similarly, total phenols are high in Morinda lucida stem bark (0.58±0.00) while is low in Momordica charantia (0.21±0.00). The proximate composition showed that Telfaria occidentalis had the highest percentage of crude protein (31.49±1.32) and lowest percentage of crude fiber (9.08±0.27). Enantia chlorantha had the highest crude fat (5.17±0.24) and carbohydrates (50.31±1.56). Momordica charantia had the lowest percentage of total ash (2.67±0.16). Morinda lucida leaf had the highest percentages of moisture (10.10±0.14) and total ash (11.24±0.42) while Morinda lucida stem bark had the highest percentage of crude fiber (53.49±1.98) and lowest percentages of moisture (9.00±0.28), crude protein (5.70±0.14), crude fat (0.45±0.16) and carbohydrates (24.93±0.21).

Keywords:  medicinal plants, folk knowledge, ailments, phytochemicals, proximates

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