Article of Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy
The role of nurses in health promotion of teenagers with arterial hypertension: a review
STRATMANN, P.F1, GOMES, B.M.R1, BOTELHO, R.S1, SANTOS, N.I.M.1, ALMEIDA, N.M.1, GONÇALVES, M.K.S1
Federal University of Pernambuco1
Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are multifactorial diseases that develop later in life. Currently, they are considered a serious public health problem and already account for over 60 % of deaths worldwide. In 2007, the death rate from chronic diseases in Brazil was 540 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. Even being an asymptomatic clinical picture, Arterial Hypertension (SAH) is a chronic disease and can be associated with diabetes forming a co-morbidity, increasing the risk of macro vascular complications in patient with. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 600 million people worldwide have hypertension, where about 17 million carriers are Brazilian. Among the chronic diseases are cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases and their risk factors are directly related to smoking, alcohol, obesity, physical inactivity and poor diet. These features are found mainly in the younger population, increasing risk for developing these diseases and particularly hypertension. The experienced changes in adolescence make this individual vulnerable to have a lifestyle without schedules. Well as input at an earlier age in the labor market, which reduces the time for sports, emphasizing physical inactivity and bringing new components that can cause stress and poor diet. The purpose of this study was to describe the nurse’s role in promoting adolescent health to the bearer of high blood pressure (hypertension). This is a review of integrative literature focusing on analysis and interpretation of official documents and periodicals. For the selection of articles was used National Journals of Nursing and the Virtual Health Library (VHL) with a choice of databases: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Literature Latin American Health Sciences (LILACS), Regional Library of Medicine (BIREME). There was respect for the ethical aspects of carrying out scientific research. The risk conditions present during childhood and adolescence tend to express in adult life. So it is with the systemic hypertension (SH), which is the most common cardiovascular disease and the main risk factor for the most common complications such as stroke and myocardial infarction, as well as chronic renal disease. The SISHIPERDIA (Clinical Management System Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus The Primary) program has, since January 2002, the Care Reorganization Plan for Arterial Hypertension. In September 2005 they were already registered in the system 5,058,777 cases in Brazil, and 140,277 of them were in the state of Pernambuco, of which 0.5 % were teenagers 14-19 years old. Although high blood pressure it is a chronic degenerative disease easily diagnosed and highly therapeutic diversity, its control is a challenge to patients, because of the necessary lifestyle changes, which is even more difficult for teenage guy. For health professionals, especially nurses, who have guided its action in continuing care, the biggest challenge is revealed the need to develop strategies to lead the individual to self-care and consequent adherence to correct treatment. Among the people who discover hypertensive, 30 % do not conduct proper treatment for lack of motivation to change habits, lack of symptoms or own financial resources. The Brazilian Society of Hypertension (SBH), the V Brazilian Hypertension Guidelines blood, showed that among the risk factors for mortality Hypertension is the cause of 40 % of deaths from stroke and 25 % for coronary heart disease and mortality due to cardiovascular disease increases progressively with increasing blood pressure from 115 / 75 mmHg. Among the main risk factors for developing high blood pressure SBH cited the change in lifestyle over the years, as sedentary adolescents have 30 % more risk to develop hypertension than active teens. Also it was quoted sudden weight gain, increased waist circumference and excess body mass, which is a predisposing factor for hypertension and may be responsible for 20 % to 30 % of cases. There have also the consumption of alcohol outside meals and excess sodium consumption. It is worth noting that changes in blood pressure do not indicate that these teenagers are people with hypertension, but suggest a possible evolution to higher levels in life adult, especially if management measures are not implemented. It is important to include health care models that incorporate several strategies to improve the quality of care and achieving adequate control of blood pressure levels of the population in question. This challenge is particularly of primary care, especially of the Family Health, priority and privileged space of health care, where the nurse works in the active search for early diagnosis, disease prevention and health education. It was found that million people worldwide have hypertension and that the disease is appearing more and more in young people, as a result of globalization and new feeding habits and activities. It highlights the importance of acquiring healthy habits such as exercise and practice of proper nutrition in order to prevent the onset of disease or treat it, leaving less and less mortality rates. It noted the importance of the presence of the nurse in this process in order to assist in the rehabilitation of the living habits of patients through health promotion, and perform early diagnoses and perform treatment plans that fit the reality of the individual, facilitating adherence to treatment.
Keywords: Adolescents; Chronic diseases; Hypertension; Health Promotion and Primary Prevention.