Article of Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy
Assistance for mother and child health: challenges for health education
ARAÚJO, M.R.A1, SOUZA, M.F1, VASCONCELOS, M.P.S1, TAVARES, M.S1, GONÇALVES, M.K.S1, PAIVA E SOUZA, V.R.F1
University of Pernambuco1
The sexual and reproductive rights underlie the construction and experience of sexuality and reproduction free of discrimination, imposition and violence. However sexual and reproductive experiences were always repressed, controlled and surrounded by myths, taboos and prejudices. This led to social construction of gender inequalities and inequities, where the woman fell to assume all tasks related to reproduction, namely the biological pregnancy and breastfeeding events, as well as the house chores. To workers in the field is also intertwined the limitation of his wife’s situation only in the reproduction of perspective, care for the family, as well as care for the earth. According to the National Policy for Integral Attention to Women’s Health: “[…] the difficulty in access to information and health actions, imposed on rural women is related, among other factors, inequalities of gender relations and work at great distances between home and work and health services, greater precariousness of local services and the little awareness and organization of the health system to deal with the specificity of injuries resulting from work in the field” Given the above, this study aimed to sexual and reproductive health of women of the settlement Normandy – Caruaru / PE, reflecting on how is the scope of these rights for these women. This is a field research with a mixed method of analysis, the main methodological strategy participatory research, which is carried out during April-June 2015. 19 women were interviewed, aged between eighteen and sixty-seven years all necessarily members of the Landless Movement and residents of the settlement, being excluded from the study those subjects who did not respond 20 % or more of the issues contained in the form. Data collection was performed using a semi-structured questionnaire containing questions about sexuality and reproduction of peasant women. The interviewees agreed participation through the Informed Consent (IC). We emphasize that any activity performed brought harm to those involved, as well as to respect the principle of ethical confidentiality of the data collected and the work agreed by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Pernambuco. In an overall assessment, it was found that the majority of respondents, about 78.9 % are aged between 19-59 years old, 10.5 % are adolescents and 10.5% are elderly. As for the marital status of respondents, the majority (52.6 %) falls as married, with or without official recognition, while 36.6 % were single, 5.3 % are separated, with or without official recognition, and 5.3 % They are widows. When we talk about the occupation of these women, a majority of 39.1 % is considered agrarian, farmer or farm, 47.7 % reported being seamstress, caregiver, cook and general services and 12.9 % militants. 35 % reported that they are considered the head of the family; while 11 % said they were the couple. With regard to family income, 37 % exposed earning between half and one minimum wage. Regarding sexual and reproductive rights, was first asked whether the respondents feel comfortable talking about the issue, where 79 % responded positively, however 58 % of these said they could not express their sexuality freely, without fear, discrimination and taxes third. 78.94 % had the opportunity to choose whether they wanted to or not have sexual intercourse and 84 % of the freedom to choose your sexual partner. In the case of separate sex from reproduction, 78.94 % of respondents said they, while 10.53 % said they did not have. About having children or not, 74 % have to have children, and 26 % did not. Among those with children, 43 % says that all the children were planned, while 57 % say that not all or none were planned. It is evident throughout the study the discrepancy that there is what is reported by the interviewees of what actually happens in practice. Thus, we can consider that the easing of speeches does not necessarily correspond to the relaxation of practices. As is well known, the construction and experience of sexuality and reproduction have always been repressed, controlled and surrounded by myths, taboos and prejudices, followed so until today. Therefore, although prevail the opportunity to choose whether wanted or not to have sex (78.94 %) and the choice of (a) partner (a) sexual (84 %), it is noteworthy that some of them were heavily influenced mainly by family, even during childhood and adolescence, about the meaning of the female body and sex. This view contributes to the naturalization of a woman image linked to marital relationship and children. Among the respondents who support the idea to have separate sex from reproduction is told that although it is not his view, the concept of sex only for reproduction is still very present in the population field; about respondents who have not and / or do not support separate sex from reproduction, you could see two different angles, those who say “do not feel right to have sex before marriage” (IS 67 years) and others that say “no know what pleasure “(MMS 53 years). Making an analysis of the speeches found, it can be said that currently the pleasurable aspect of sex has shown greater importance than their reproductive purpose. However, there are still strong evidence of the social role historically resigned to woman, to have a certain obligation to serve ace wills of men, especially when it comes to her husband. In the sexual sphere, it is known that many women do not have their guaranteed sexual rights, especially regarding the right to sexual pleasure, and even today, when we live under other moral standards, knowledge of pleasure is not something common among women. From the research, it was found that rights inherent in the health field women are not yet secured effectively, being perceived fragmentation of care. Incentives to act in the health field is still slow and there is a gap between what is recommended in the law and reaching the base of the health system. Note the need to fight and deconstruction in the relations of oppression and discrimination between men and women, through the transformation of patriarchal society, aiming at building a new society that rescue human values, the relationship between people and nature in a egalitarian and liberating perspective.
Keywords: Sexual and Reproductive Rights; Women; Rural population.
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