Research Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
The Accumulation Of Cadmium In Corn (Zea Mays L.) At Different Levels Of Soil Ph
Rabah S. Shareef*1,2, Awang Soh Mamat*3, Zakaria Wahab*4, Ibni Hajar Rukunudin*5
1 College of Education-Al-Qiam, University of Anbar, Iraq.
2 School of Bioprocess Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia.
3 School of Bioprocess Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia.
4 School of Bioprocess Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia.
5 School of Bioprocess Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia.
A pot experiment was carried out in the plastic greenhouse at the Institute of Sustainable Agrotechnology (INSAT), University Malaysia Perlis in Sungai Chuchuh, Perlis, Malaysia. During season of the cultivation of 2014 investigate the impact of soil pH and cadmium on growth of corn plant (Zea mays L.). Twenty five were arranged in factorial experiments according to the Complete Randomized Design (CRD), with three replicates. Five levels of soil pH were, pH4, pH5.2 (i.e., the original value), pH6, pH7 and pH8 and five levels of cadmium (Cd); Cd 1, Cd 2, Cd 3, Cd 4 and Cd 0 where the amounts (2, 4, 6, 8 mg. kg-1 soil and control treatment without add cadmium) are applied as CdCl2. Thus, the total numbers of pots were 75 pots. The results of this investigation revealed that; The decrease of soil pH led to significant effect to increase concentration of cadmium in root, stem, leaves and grain of corn, where the level of pH 5.2 gave highest concentrations of Cd compared with pH 8. the interactions between soil pH and cadmium led to increase of reduced the accumulation of cadmium in the corn, where it gave the interaction between pH 8 and Cd 0 lowest concentration of cadmium in root, stem, leaves and grain.
Keywords: Accumulation, Cadmium, Corn, Soil pH, Perlis.
How to cite this article:
Rabah S. Shareef, Awang Soh Mamat, Zakaria Wahab, Ibni Hajar Rukunudin. The Accumulation Of Cadmium In Corn (Zea Mays L.) At Different Levels Of Soil Ph. American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology, 2016,1:3. DOI: 10.28933/shareef-ajmi-08-2016
1. Shi Y. Corn Plant Location, Spacing and Stalk Diameter Measurement Using Optical Sensing Technologies.
2. Qiu H, Huang J, Yang J, Rozelle S, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Zhang Y. Bioethanol development in China and the potential impacts on its agricultural economy. Applied Energy. 2010; 87(1):76-83.
3. Sarwar N, Malhi SS, Zia MH, Naeem A, Bibi S, Farid G. Role of mineral nutrition in minimizing cadmium accumulation by plants. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2010; 90(6):925-37.
4. Clemens S, Palmgren MG, Krämer U. A long way ahead: understanding and engineering plant metal accumulation. Trends in plant science. 2002; 7(7):309-15.
5. Hossain MA, Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M. Up-regulation of antioxidant and glyoxalase systems by exogenous glycinebetaine and proline in mung bean confer tolerance to cadmium stress. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 2010; 16(3):259-72.
6. Castillo-Michel HA, Hernandez N, Martinez-Martinez A, Parsons JG, Peralta-Videa JR, Gardea-Torresdey JL. Coordination and speciation of cadmium in corn seedlings and its effects on macro-and micronutrients uptake. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2009; 47(7):608-14.
7. Ekmekçi Y, Tanyolac D, Ayhan B. Effects of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme and photosynthetic activities in leaves of two maize cultivars. Journal of plant physiology. 2008; 165(6):600-11.
8. Ahmad I. Bioremediation Of Cadmium Contaminated Soil With The Help Of Organic Manures (Doctoral dissertation, University Of Agriculture, Faisalabad).
9. Bi X, Feng X, Yang Y, Li X, Shin GP, Li F, Qiu G, Li G, Liu T, Fu Z. Allocation and source attribution of lead and cadmium in maize (Zea mays L.) impacted by smelting emissions. Environmental Pollution. 2009; 157(3):834-9.
10. Akahane I, Makino T, Maejima Y. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer, pH, and Electrical Conductivity on the Solubility of Cadmium in Soil Solution (< Special Issue> International Symposium: Challenges to Soil Degradation Towards Sustaining Life and Environment, Tokyo Metropolitan University Symposium Series No. 2, 2009). ペドロジスト. 2010; 53(3):101-7.
11. Sauve S, McBride M, Hendershot W. Adsorption of free lead (Pb) by pedogenic oxides, ferrihydrite, and leaf compost. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2000; 64(2):595-9.
12. Kukier U, Peters CA, Chaney RL, Angle JS, Roseberg RJ. The effect of pH on metal accumulation in two species. Journal of Environmental Quality. 2004; 33(6):2090-102.
13. Kirkham MB. Cadmium in plants on polluted soils: effects of soil factors, hyperaccumulation, and amendments. Geoderma. 2006; 137(1):19-32.
14. Weyman-Kaczmarkowa W, Pędziwilk Z. The development of fungi as affected by pH and type of soil, in relation to the occurrence of bacteria and soil fungistatic activity. Microbiological research. 2000; 155(2):107-12.
15. Ahmed OH, Sumalatha G, Muhamad AN. Use of zeolite in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus uptake and use efficiency. International Journal of Physical Sciences. 2010; 5(15):2393-401.
16. Sarwar N, Bibi S, Ahmad M, Ok YS. Effectiveness of zinc application to minimize cadmium toxicity and accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Environmental earth sciences. 2014; 71(4):1663-72..
17. Payne RW, Murray DA, Harding SA, Baird DB, Soutar DM. GenStat for windows introduction. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead. 2009: 204.
18. KC D. Long term effect of fertilizer application on cadmium uptake on oat (Avena sativa) plant.
19. Tsadilas CD, Karaivazoglou NA, Tsotsolis NC, Stamatiadis S, Samaras V. Cadmium uptake by tobacco as affected by liming, N form, and year of cultivation. Environmental Pollution. 2005; 134(2):239-46.
20. Ahmad I, Akhtar MJ, Asghar HN, Zahir ZA. Comparative efficacy of growth media in causing cadmium toxicity to wheat at seed germination stage. Int J Agric Biol. 2013; 15:517-22.
21. Azzi VS, Kanso A, Kobeissi A, Kazpard V, Lartiges B, El Samrani A. Effect of Cadmium on Lactuca sativa Grown in Hydroponic Culture Enriched with Phosphate Fertilizer. Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 6(12):1337.
22. Mishra S, Srivastava S, Tripathi RD, Govindarajan R, Kuriakose SV, Prasad MN. Phytochelatin synthesis and response of antioxidants during cadmium stress in Bacopa monnieri L◊. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2006; 44(1):25-37.
23. Kukier U, Chaney RL, Ryan JA, Daniels WL, Dowdy RH, Granato TC. Phytoavailability of cadmium in long-term biosolids-amended soils. Journal of environmental quality. 2010; 39(2):519-30.
24. Jiao Y, Grant CA, Bailey LD. Effects of phosphorus and zinc fertilizer on cadmium uptake and distribution in flax and durum wheat. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2004; 84(8):777-85.
25. Li Z, Ryan JA, Chen JL, Al-Abed SR. Adsorption of cadmium on biosolids-amended soils. Journal of Environmental Quality. 2001; 30(3):903-11.
26. Hettiarachchi GM, Ryan JA, Chaney RL, La Fleur CM. Sorption and desorption of cadmium by different fractions of biosolids-amended soils. Journal of Environmental Quality. 2003; 32(5):1684-93.
27. Sebastian A, Prasad MN. Vertisol prevent cadmium accumulation in rice: Analysis by ecophysiological toxicity markers. Chemosphere. 2014; 108:85-92.
28. Hussain A, Murtaza GH, Ghafoor A, Basra SM, Qadir M, Sabir M. Cadmium contamination of soils and crops by long term use of raw effluent, ground and canal waters in agricultural lands. Int J Agric Biol. 2010; 12:851-6.
29. da Cunha KP, do Nascimento CW. Silicon effects on metal tolerance and structural changes in maize (Zea mays L.) grown on a cadmium and zinc enriched soil. Water, air, and soil pollution. 2009; 197(1-4):323-30.
30. Uraguchi S, Fujiwara T. Rice breaks ground for cadmium-free cereals. Current opinion in plant biology. 2013; 16(3):328-34.
31. Adams ML, Zhao FJ, McGrath SP, Nicholson FA, Chambers BJ. Predicting cadmium concentrations in wheat and barley grain using soil properties. Journal of Environmental Quality. 2004; 33(2):532-41.
32. François M, Grant C, Lambert R, Sauvé S. Prediction of cadmium and zinc concentration in wheat grain from soils affected by the application of phosphate fertilizers varying in Cd concentration. Nutrient cycling in agroecosystems. 2009; 83(2):125-33.
33. Grant C, Flaten D, Tenuta M, Gao X, Malhi S, Gowalko E. Impact of long-term application of phosphate fertilizer on cadmium accumulation in crops. In19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World 2010 Aug (pp. 132-134).