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Inflammatory Processes, Viral Infections and Dental Practice during Covid-19

Review Article of International Journal of Dental Research and Reviews Inflammatory Processes, Viral Infections and Dental Practice during Covid-19 Aurora Karla de Lacerda Vidal¹, Mônica Moreira Dias da Cruz2, Angélica Lopes Frade¹, Anna Danielly Almeida do Nascimento¹, Beatriz Santos Borges¹, Cristianne de Barros Santos¹, Fernanda Teles Pereira¹, Laís Azevedo Lins de Holanda¹ 1Institute of Biological Sciences, Oncology Center - Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital of the University of Pernambuco (ICB / CEON - HUOC / UPE); 2Pediatric Oncohematology Center - Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital of the University of Pernambuco (CEONPE - HUOC / UPE) The mouth is a natural reservoir of several microorganisms resulting from various ecological determinants, being conducive to contagion, as it is an open system for contamination, to which the oral health team is exposed. This microbiota, in general, is in harmony with the host and is quite relevant, as it contributes to the development of the mucous immune system. However, local and/or systemic changes can result in imbalance and clinical manifestation of diseases in the mouth, as reported in this chapter, about coronavirus, hepatitis, herpes, varicella-zoster, infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus, ebola, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Oral hygiene is essential to maintain harmony between normal oral microbiota and external contamination, and, as is known, the mouth is part of the digestive and respiratory system and, in this moment of the lethal and quite contagious SARS-VOC 2 pandemic, the dental practice needs to reinforce biosafety care and reduce the vulnerability of staff and patients, in order to favor the good practices of home dental care, outpatient and/or hospital assistance. Keywords: Inflammatory Processes; Viral Infections; Dental Practice; Covid-19 ...

Neuroinflammation

Review Article of International Journal of Neuroscience Research NEUROINFLAMMATION Gustavo Leite Franklin, M.D., Ph.D.1; Nayra de Souza Carvalho Lima, Msc.2; Alex Tiburtino Meira, M.D., Msc, Ph.D.3, Lucas Andrade Ferreti, M.D.1; Conrado Regis Borges, M.D4 1Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná. 2Universidade Vila Velha, Espírito Santo. 3 Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Paraíba. 4Universidade de São Paulo – FMUSP, São Paulo Inflammation is a complex process, mediated by cellular and molecular mechanisms caused by a response to a tissue damage from an aggressive agent, whether if biological, chemical or physical origin. This process occurs, ultimately, with the purpose of promoting defense, repair and tissue regeneration. The inflammatory process leads to changes in blood vessels that have their diameter and flow altered, with the objective of leading to increased vascular permeability and consequent leakage of fluids and cells into the extracellular space of the affected tissue. This sequence of events generates the cardinal signs of inflammation, which are: pain, heat, redness, edema, with loss or alteration of function. The process occurs through mechanisms induced by cytokines and that despite having local manifestation, it can lead to systemic responses involving the whole organism with fever, chills, tremors, tachycardia, leukocytosis, sweating, diuresis and blood dyscrasias. In the cascade of events related to inflammation, there is initially a local stimulus that promotes morphological and functional changes in the attacked tissue that trigger the release of signaling molecules, the defensins that have a chemotactic effect on monocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes, and pro-inflammatory mediators. that are directly involved in the next inflammatory phases. There is, then, the recognition of aggression and the aggressor agent by the receptors of cells of the immune system and release of inflammatory mediators, of the cyclooxygenase pathway that will release prostaglandin, prostacyclins and thromboxanes and by the lipooxygenase pathway that will produce ...

THE TWO-WAY STREET BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASES AND DIABETES

Review Article of International Research Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism The Two-way Street between Periodontal Diseases and Diabetes Renata Cimões1, Roberto Carlos Mourão Pinho2 1Associate Professor of the Department of Prosthesis and Buco-Facial Surgery at UFPE; Post-Doctorate in Periodontics Eastman Dental Institute, London. PhD in Dentistry; Specialist in Periodontics; ITI Fellow, Speaker and Study Club Director; 2Post-Doctorate in Dentistry UFPE; PhD in Dentistry UFPE; Specialist in Dentistry for Patients with Special Needs; Specialist in Endodontics; Molecular Biology Specialist Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is initiated by the accumulation of dental biofilm, where dysbiosis leads to a chronic non-resolving condition, and destructive inflammatory response. The destruction of tissues that we clinically recognize as periodontitis (that is, destruction of the periodontal ligament, periodontal pocket formation and alveolar bone resorption) is caused mainly by the host’s inflammatory response to the bacterial challenge presented by the biofilm [38]. Periodontitis affects, in its severe forms, approximately 10% of the global population, which represents almost 750 million people worldwide[16]. The prevalence of periodontitis among all adults aged 30 years and over registered by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States is 46% [8]. In addition, periodontitis has been found to be more severe and 3 times more likely to occur in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to the general population [14,25], and the level of glycemic control is the key to determining risk, and similar to other diabetes complications, the risk of periodontitis increases with a worse glycemic index [33]. DM, a chronic non-communicable metabolic disease, occurs when blood glucose levels are increased, or because the body cannot produce any, or enough insulin, or use insulin effectively [15]. Keywords: Periodontal Diseases; Diabetes ...

Monitoring Parasitic Contamination of the Beaches Sand and Public Squares of Northeast Brazil: a Comparative Approach

Research Article of International Research Journal of Public Health Monitoring Parasitic Contamination of the Beaches Sand and Public Squares of Northeast Brazil: a Comparative Approach Paulo Henrique Valença Nunes1, Celina Cavalcante Muniz Gomes2, Emmanuel Nóbrega Travassos de Arruda2, Lidiane Paloma Santos2, José Rafael da Silva Araujo3, Francisca Janaina Soares Rocha4 1Master's student at the Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences. Federal University of Pernambuco, 2Graduate student in Biomedicine. Federal University of Pernambuco, 3Doctoral Student of the Postgraduate Program in Genetics Federal University of Pernambuco 4Associate professor at the Medical Sciences Center (CCM), Federal University of Pernambuco. This work aims to evaluate the parasite presence in the sand of two squares and beaches/parks in the metropolitan region of Recife-PE and João Pessoa-PB, to compare the frequencies of the main parasitological species in these locations. The samples were collected in 2014 from three different depths of the soil (surface, 10 cm, and 20 cm), obtaining 96 samples from the metropolitan regions of Recife-PE and 48 samples from João Pessoa-PB. In Recife were detected a high number of positive samples from beaches (70.8%) and squares (25.7%) compared to João Pessoa, which reached 45.8% and 25%, respectively. Twelve parasite species were identified, distributed predominantly in the samples collected in 10 and 20 cm. In Pernambuco, the species Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Endolimax nana were the most recurrent on the beaches, while Toxocara sp. and Iodamoeba butschilii were more frequent in the parks. In the Paraíba were identified only Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar on the beaches. While Ancylostoma sp., Cryptosporidium spp, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were the most recurrent in the Paraíba squares. This study highlights the contamination of parasites in public environments (squares/beaches) to alert the need for actions aimed at combating parasites in these places. Keywords: Parasitic Contamination; Beaches Sand; Public Squares; Northeast Brazil ...

Recognizing Traditional Chinese Medicine Customs during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Report

Case Report of International Journal of Case Reports Recognizing Traditional Chinese Medicine Customs during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Report Justin Chin 1,2, Christine Lomiguen 2,3,  Kevin Hon4, George Nguyen5, Cynthia Carmichael1 1Department of Family Medicine, Lifelong Medical Care, CA USA; 2Department of Medical Education, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, PA USA; 3Department of Family Medicine, Millcreek Community Hospital, PA USA; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, New York-Presbyterian Queens Hospital, NY USA; 5Department of Internal Medicine, Banner University Medical Center - Phoenix, AZ USA Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is based on the belief of vital energy (qi) within the body and attributes disease with imbalance in energies (yin and yang). The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated unique physical barriers, including increased physical distancing, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and telehealth services, which complicate existing efforts to understand alternative health practices. This case report highlights the importance of cultural competency training for healthcare providers, as evident in improved patient care when recognizing and acknowledging TCM customs in association with the COVID-19 pandemic. Keywords: Traditional Chinese Medicine Customs; COVID-19 Pandemic; Case Report ...

Effect of RevX solution adjunct to standard therapy in a patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma: A case report

Case Report of International Journal of Case Reports Effect of RevX solution adjunct to standard therapy in a patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma: A case report Cheng-Jui Lin, MD, PhD 1,2,3 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Department of Medicine, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan. 3Mackay Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Taipei, Taiwan. RevX solution is a liquid fermented grain extract obtained through a unique extraction technology, and its ingredients contain phytosterols, sulfonamides, organic acids, and anti-inflammatory substances. The adjunct treatment of RevX for lung adenocarcinoma has not yet been surveyed in vitro or in vivo experiments. A 71-year-old woman was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma. She underwent the targeted therapy and continually took the RevX solution (3 to 5 ml per day). Sixteen months after diagnosis and targeted therapy, multiple lung metastases appeared. After the second-line targeted therapy and wedge resection for 16 months, the patient was still alive. The distinct improvement of hypodynamia and fewer complication was found during targeted therapy treatment complemented with the RevX solution for longer than 4 years. Thus, the RevX solution might potentially be an adjuvant therapy for patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. Keywords: Metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, traditional Chinese medicine, RevX solution ...