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DETERMINANTS OF BUDGET DEFICIT IN SELECTED EAST AND WEST AFRICAN COUNTRIES: A DYNAMIC PANEL DATA APPROACH

Research article of Global journal of Economics and Business Administration DETERMINANTS OF BUDGET DEFICIT IN SELECTED EAST AND WEST AFRICAN COUNTRIES: A DYNAMIC PANEL DATA APPROACH Wondimhunegn Atilaw Woledetensaye Department of Economics, Mizan Tepi University Budget deficits imitate rank of monetary health in which public outflow exceed public inflow. In this study the determinants of budget deficit analyzed in two regions east and west African cross countries from the year of 2000 to 2017 using a dynamic panel data approach. The data is obtained from WDI, IMF database and annual reports of these institutions. The study employed least square dummy variable fixed effect estimations technique of the model and It also investigate interaction variable of debt regressions result to know whether the source of debt in the regions of countries are same or not. The result reveals that higher number of unemployment, broad money supply and high amount of total population growth are associated with a significant effect on budget deficit. While real gross domestic product, debt and inflations rate are showed insignificant effect on budget deficit in the analysis of the regions. The study also including time invariant variable in the estimation result that is country dummy in the study implied that, as comparing to Ethiopia the amount of budget deficit in Tanzania, Senegal and Cote Divore are higher amount of public deficit implied by country dummy analysis of this study. The study indicates as policy implications reducing higher level of unemployment, broad money supply and populations’ growth rate are technically reducing budget deficit of the regions and knowing the optimum amount of budget that raised by the policy maker to the economy is crucial to the regions. Finally on the basis of this study, it makes a number of recommendations to reduce budget deficits in the regions. Keywords:budget, determinants, ...

Determination of Appropriate Seed Rate and Row Spacing of Bread Wheat for Highlands of Guji Zone

Research Article of Journal of Theoretical and Applied Sciences Determination of Appropriate Seed Rate and Row Spacing of Bread Wheat for Highlands of Guji Zone Seyoum Alemu, Yared Tesfaye, Obsa Chimdesa, Kabna Asefa, Girma Teshome Bore Agricultural Research Center Wheat is one of the major staple crops in Ethiopia in terms of both production and consumption. Even though it is such an important cereal crops in Ethiopia, it is giving low yield due to many production constraints such as lack of improved varieties, poor agronomic practice (inappropriate seeding rate and row spacing), diseases, weeds and low soil fertility in Ethiopia in general and in Guji zone in particular. Therefore, field experiment was conducted during the 2015-2017 main cropping season at Bore and Ana sora to assess the effect of seeding rate and row spacing on yield components and yield of bread wheat; and to determine appropriate seeding rates row spacing for bread wheat. The experiment was laid out RCBD in a factorial arrangement with three replications using a wheat variety known as ‘Huluka’ as a test crop. The treatments consisted of four levels of seeding rate (100, 125, 150 and 175 kg ha-1) and four levels of row spacing (15, 20, 25 and 30 cm) consisting a total of 16 treatments. Analysis of the results revealed that all parameters were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the interaction of the factors (seeding rate x row spacing) as well as the main effects except date to 50% heading and plant height which did not significantly (P<0.05) affected. The highest grain yield (4239 kg/ha) were obtained from combination of 150 kg/ha seeding rate and 20cm row spacing. Therefore, use of 150 kg/ha and 20cm row spacing can be recommended for production of bread wheat for the study area (Bore and Ana Sora) and other ...

Review on breast cancer immunotherapy

Review Article of American Journal of Cancer Research and Reviews Review on breast cancer immunotherapy Selamawit Fentahun Ali School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollo University Cancer immunotherapy consists of approaches that modify the host immune system, and/or the utilization of components of the immune system for treatment and prevention of cancer. Eventhough breast cancer has historically not been considered a favorable target for immunotherapies as compared to those solid tumors such as melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, several preclinical and clinical studies have provided important insights and clinical data that support its potential to improve clinical outcomes for patients with breast cancer. In addition, the recent definition of tumor-specific immunity in breast cancer patients and the identification of several breast cancer antigens has generated enthusiasm for the application of immune based therapies to the treatment of breast malignancies. In general, immunotherapies can be considered either non-specific, such as cytokine, or tumor specific for example a vaccine that targets breast cancer tumor antigens. Current immunotherapeutic approaches either through immunization of the patient (e.g., by administering a cancer vaccine), in which case the patient’s own immune system is trained to recognize tumor cells as targets to be destroyed, or through the administration of therapeutic antibodies as drugs, in which case the patient’s immune system is recruited to destroy tumor cells by the therapeutic antibodies, Cell based immunotherapy is another major entity of cancer immunotherapy. The review concluded that immunotherapeutic approaches combined with novel sequences of chemotherapies, radiation, and immunomodulating agents hold promise for enhancing the treatment of breast cancer. Keywords: immunotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, cytokine, breast cancer, immune system and cancer vaccines ...

The Existence of Phillips Curve theory in Ethiopia; Depend on Augmented Phillips curve theory Analysis

Review Article of American Journal of Design The Existence of Phillips Curve theory in Ethiopia; Depend on Augmented Phillips curve theory Analysis Endashaw Sisay Sirah Department of Economics, Mizan Tepi University To continue Ethiopia’s successful path towards becoming a middle income country, it is an important issue focusing on macroeconomic variables. In this modern world inflation and unemployment’s are a most sensitive issue and needs critical attention to overcome problems which come from those two macroeconomic variables. Thus, the objective of the study was to investigate the long run and short run relationships, plus to this to look the causality between inflation rate and unemployment in Ethiopia. The study utilized Augmented Dickey-Fuller test, Auto Regressive Distributed Lag model and Granger causality test by using Vector Error Correction Model with a time spam of 1984/85-2019/20. The finding appears unemployment (contrarily and pitifully) and expected inflation (positively) has long run impact on the current inflation rate. Within the short run as it were anticipated inflation (positively) affect inflation rate but there’s no short run relationship between inflation rate and unemployment rate. From this, the researcher proofs that Phillips curve exist in long run (contrary to 1970’s theory), not in short run (contrary to 1950 and 1960’s theory). At long last, the study suggests the government ought to center on monetary approach which plays an incredible part on unemployment decrease and money related arrangement for inflation rate. Besides, a government ought to maintain a strategic distance from fumble on outside obligation utilization and outside coordinate venture. The government ought to alter the populace growth to economic progress. Keywords: Augmented Phillips curve, Ethiopia, Inflation, Unemployment ...

The Role of Pilgrimage for Peace: A Study in St.Lalibela Rock Hewn Churches

Research Article of Global Journal of Religions The Role of Pilgrimage for Peace: A Study in St.Lalibela Rock Hewn Churches Belay Asmare Woldia University, Department of Political Science and International Relations It is common to see thousands of pilgrims, both inside and out, to St. Lalibela Rock hewn churches of Ethiopia. But, it is uncommon to see studies on the role of pilgrimage for peace: much of the researches are focused on the economic importance of pilgrimage tourism in the country. Despite the existence of many religious tourist sites, scholars in Ethiopia gave little or no attention to the importance of pilgrimage for peace. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to investigate the role of pilgrimage for the inner and outer peace of pilgrims to St. Lalibela Rock hewn Churches of Ethiopia. To achieve this objective, the article employed 20 purposively selected pilgrims for in-depth interviews, four key informants (two were Tourism bureau officials of Lalibela town, and the other two were priests of the Church), personal observation and document reviews to collect data. In addition, one FGD, containing eight pilgrim discussants, was held with the pilgrims to elicit group ideas about the issue. Thematic categorization and analysis was used to analyze the collected data. The article revealed that the pilgrimage provides different inner peace for the pilgrims like, purification (healing from sin), relinquishment of self will, relinquishment of separateness, relinquishment of negative feelings, avoiding of the worrying habit, avoiding of the anger habit and the fear habit. Moreover, the article argued that the pilgrims achieved outer peace: upholding human dignity, challenging prejudice and building tolerance, promoting non-violence behavior, resolving and transforming conflicts, sharing of resources, caring not only for other pilgrims but also to the environment, and making inter-personal and inter-communal linkages. The article, therefore, concludes that pilgrimage ...

Inter-Ethnic Conflict Resolution by Local Peace Committee: The Case of Afar-Amhara Conflict

Research Article of Global Journal of Religions Inter-Ethnic Conflict Resolution by Local Peace Committee: The Case of Afar-Amhara Conflict Belay Asmare Woldia University, Department of Political Science and International Relations Over the years, the Afar and Amhara people of the North Eastern Ethiopia have locked horns over the control of resources. The federal government delegated power to the two regional governments to settle the conflict between the two ethnic groups. However, efforts made by this tier of governments are failed to stop the conflict in the area. As a result, they established the joint LPCs made up of local people from both ethnic groups. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the process, challenges and opportunities of these LPC in its conflict resolution journey. To this attempt, the study employed both primary and secondary data sources. The study revealed that the LPCs employ series of process to resolve the conflict in the study area. Besides, it identifies a number of glaring challenges that the LPCs faced with. Despite the challenges that the LPCs faced with, the study further identifies the existence of opportunities which can positively benefit the LPCs to transform the conflict in the study area. In nutshell, the LPCs are found to be very important institutions in conflict resolution and promoting peace in the study area. Therefore, the study recommended those governmental and non-governmental agencies, the LPC members, the community, and intellectuals altogether should strive to decrease the challenges and promote the opportunities of these LPCs to solve the Afar-Amhara conflicts at the border. Keywords: Afar, Amhara, conflict resolution, inter-ethnic conflict, Local Peace Committees (LPCs) ...