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AN EASY AFFORDABLE STATISTICAL AND ECONOMIC (EASE) APPROACH TO AVOID UNNECESSARY AND EXPENSIVE EXAMS TO MONITOR PATIENTS WITH SMALL AAA

Research Article of American Journal of Cardiology Research and Reviews AN EASY AFFORDABLE STATISTICAL AND ECONOMIC (EASE) APPROACH TO AVOID UNNECESSARY AND EXPENSIVE EXAMS TO MONITOR PATIENTS WITH SMALL AAA Vezzoli Marika1, Archetti Claudia2, Bianchessi Nicola3, Bonardelli Stefano4, Garrafa Emirena1* 1Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, 25123, Italy. 2IDS Department, ESSEC Business School in Paris, Paris, 95021 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex, France. 3Department of Informatics “Giovanni degli Antoni”, University of Milan, Milan, 20133, Italy. 4Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, 25123, Italy. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a localized enlargement of the abdominal aorta, such that the diameter exceeds 30 mm. AAA is a progressive growth leading to rupture, with high risk of mortality, therefore elective surgical repair is indicated when AAA diamenter is >55 mm. Screening programs, that use morphological imaging, have been developed internationally with the aim of detecting AAA before rupture with important limitations in term of cost and benefit for patients. Furthermore, different biochemical markers have been proposed to monitor AAA progression to overcome the above-mentioned limitations but none of them is used in the clinical practice. In fact, most of the biomarkers proposed are expensive and not feasible in the majority of laboratories. Combining different methodologies coming from Statistics and Operational Research fields, we developed an algorithm able to assess the importance of common biomarkers, requested in the clinical practice to evaluate the health of patient, and therefore no exams are required. Furthermore, we develop an Easy, Affordable Statistics and Economic (EASE) model able to identify if the AAA remain below the cut off for surgical repair. This prediction can provide guidance to how closely the patient’s abdominal aorta should be monitored avoiding additional and expensive exams. Keywords: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, EASE ...

LEFT VENTRICULAR LEAD IMPLANTATION FOR DETECTION OF VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS IN PATIENT WITH IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER DEFIBRILLATOR AND LOW R WAVE IN RIGHT VENTRICLE

Case Report of American Journal of Cardiology Research and Reviews LEFT VENTRICULAR LEAD IMPLANTATION FOR DETECTION OF VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS IN PATIENT WITH IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER DEFIBRILLATOR AND LOW R WAVE IN RIGHT VENTRICLE Zebrauskaite A1*, Kiernan TJ1,2, Hennessy T1 1Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. 2Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease characterised as left ventricular (LV) or biventricular dilatation with impaired systolic function. Regardless of underlying cause patients with DCM have a propensity to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) implantation for these patients results in significant reduction of sudden cardiac death [1-3]. ICD devices may be limited by right ventricle (RV) sensing dysfunction with low RV sensing amplitude. We present a clinical case of patient with DCM, implanted ICD and low R wave sensing on RV lead. Keywords: DCM, ICD, LV ...

ARSENIC SPECIES BINDING PROTEINS IN CARDIOVASCULAR TISSUES FROM CARDIAC PATIENTS OF CHILE

Research Article of American Journal of Cardiology Research and Reviews ARSENIC SPECIES BINDING PROTEINS IN CARDIOVASCULAR TISSUES FROM CARDIAC PATIENTS OF CHILE Isabel Pizarro Veas Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry. Faculty of Basic Sciences. University of Antofagasta, Antofagasta, (Chile). The intracellular As-protein binding in cytosol and methanol–water extract of the auricle and saphene tissues of As impacted people was evaluated by bidimensional size exclusion FPLC-UV-ICP-MS. The fractionation of cytosol using Superdex, Phenomenex and MonoQ HR 5/5 columns, shows that As is distributed in a wide range of contiguous fractions of each column, being 8, 25, 50 % the percentages of As in the collected fractions, respectively. In the methanol: water extracts a similar study than performed with the cytosol using preparative gel chromatography on Sephadex G-75 and Shephadex G-100 columns and the MonoQ HR 5/5 anion protein exchange was carried out. A very low As (<1 % of total As) and protein contain were found in the different fractions of both SEC fractionating series. A similar As–protein association to that found in the cytosol after fractionating with MonoQ HR 5/5 was observed for auricle and saphene. Inorganic and methylated As speciation in the 20 - 26 cytosol fractions obtained within the Phenomenex column was performed by HPLC–ICP–MS using the Hamilton PRP-X100 column. Only As (III) and As (V) were present and the results obtained shows that the As (III)/As(V) ratio is constant in most cases. Direct evidence of the existence of As–binding peptides in auricle and saphene vein from arsenic impacted human beings has have been obtained which was previously reported by means of novo peptide synthesis. Keywords: Arsenic Species Binding Proteins; Cardiovascular Tissues; Cardiac Patients; Chile ...

NURSING RECOMMENDATIONS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF PREECLAMPSIA DURING PRENATAL CARE

Review Article of Global Journal of Nursing NURSING RECOMMENDATIONS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF PREECLAMPSIA DURING PRENATAL CARE Elsy Guadalupe Vega-Morales1, María de los Ángeles Torres-Lagunas2, Karla Monserrat Cano-Zamora2 1Servicios de Salud de Yucatán, Centro de Atención Temporal Siglo XXI, Coordinación Estatal de Enfermería, Mérida Yucatán, México; 2Escuela Nacional de Enfermería y Obstetricia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Ciudad de México, México. Aim: Develop nursing recommendations based on scientific evidence, aimed at reducing the probability of developing pre-eclampsia during prenatal care. Material and methods: A bibliographic search was carried out on the web: Medline, BVS, Cinahl and Google Scholar with the descriptors: pre-eclampsia, prenatal care, nursing with the conjunction AND and the disjunction OR. The documents with the referred descriptors were included. Two reviewers selected the articles. Conflicts were resolved by another reviewer. The methodological quality of each article was evaluated. The evidence was ranked and the recommendation was made. The Shekelle and Galvez Toro model was used for grading. Results: 4 aspects were evidenced: risk factors, timely detection, nursing care, protective factors and recommendations. Conclusions: Prenatal care continues to be a source of protection and control for pregnant women. Blood pressure measurement continues to be the gold standard for early detection. Nursing is a primary protective factor. Keywords: Preeclampsia, Obstetric nursing, Prenatal care ...

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADMINISTRATIVE FACTORS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF ST-SEGMENT ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION REFERRAL SYSTEM AMONG THAI HOSPITALS

Research Article of American Journal of Cardiology Research and Reviews THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADMINISTRATIVE FACTORS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF ST-SEGMENT ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION REFERRAL SYSTEM AMONG THAI HOSPITALS Kitigon Vichairuangthum M.D. 1,2,3, Pisamai Jarujittipant Ph.D.1, Kietchai Veerayannon Ph.D.1 1 Management Program, Faculty of Political Science, North Bangkok University, Thailand. 2 Division of Cardiovascular disease, Royal Heart Center, Huahin Hospital, Phrachuap Khiri Khan, Thailand.3 Division of Cardiovascular disease, Royal Heart Center, Suranaree university of Technology Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. Background: This descriptive study aimed to study the relationship between administrative factors and the effectiveness of the referral system of patients with acute ischemic heart disease in Thai hospitals. Materials and methods: The target population was 1,180 hospitals that serving heart disease in Thailand. Data were collected by using a questionnaire. A total of 1,022 response data were obtained. Administrative factors were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and the relationship was analyzed using multiple regression analysis (MRA) methods. Results: The study showed that the administrative factors which consisted of personnel, finance, supporting, and management factors had overall average readiness at a high level (x̄ = 3.34, S.D. = 0.27). Except budget sufficiency was at a low level (x̄ = 2.43, S.D. = 0.43). All factors were related to the mortality rate significantly, as follows: management factor (Adjusted R2 = 0.433), personnel factor (Adjusted R2 = 0.231), supporting factor (Adjusted R2 = 0.092) and financial factor (Adjusted R2 = 0.035). All factors were also significantly related to the timely cardiac catheterization rate, as follows: management factor (Adjusted R2 = 0.442), personnel factor (Adjusted R2 = 0.244), supporting factor (Adjusted R2 = 0.212) and financial factor (Adjusted R2 = 0.091). Conclusion: Thai Ministry of Public Health should provide adequate support for administrative factors, especially in terms of management, personnel, supporting factors, and budget sufficiency. Keywords: Administrative Factors, ...

ANALYSE THE RISK FACTORS OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN YOUNG AND MIDDLE – AGED MALE PATIENTS USING MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL

Research Article of American Journal of Cardiology Research and Reviews ANALYSE THE RISK FACTORS OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN YOUNG AND MIDDLE - AGED MALE PATIENTS USING MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL Junjie Lin, Lele Wang, Xiaodan Fan, Jingyu Wu, Zhou Wang, Chunmei Qi* Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, 221000 Objective: To study the correlation between various risk factors and coronary CTA calcification score ( CACS ) in young and middle-aged male patients with coronary heart disease by multiple linear regression, and to predict plaque properties by Mahalanobis distance discrimination method. This study provides evidence for early clinical evaluation of the extent of coronary artery calcification and the property of plaque in patients having suffered coronary heart disease. Methods: choose 98 male patients under 55 years old with coronary heart disease randomly and collecte relevant medical history data and test results while in hospital.Utilizing the theory of multiple linear regression and Mahalanobis distance discriminant to analyse these dates. Results: Factors including hypertension classification×years, number of cigarettes smoked(packs / week )×years,and time of diabetes(years) have a positive correlation between CACS respectively. Comparing calcified plaque and vulnerable plaque, mixed plaque and vulnerable plaque,there is a significant differences ( p < 0.01) while hs-CRP and IL-6 are as the indicator. Mahalanobis distance discrimination method has a discrimination accuracy of 91.83 % for the group wrih susceptible factors only. Conclusion: The model of predicting the extent of coronary artery calcification by multiple linear regression has high reliability. Vulnerable plaques can be distinguished from plaques of other properties efficiently using Mahalanobis distance discrimination method. Keywords: Multiple linear regression; Mahalanobis distance discrimination; Coronary CTA calcification score; Vulnerable plaques; IL-6 ...