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Socio-cultural, Herd Structure and Reproductive Practices of Pastoral Cattle Producers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

Research Article of International Journal of Animal Research Socio-cultural, Herd Structure and Reproductive Practices of Pastoral Cattle Producers in Adamawa State, Nigeria I.  H.  KUBKOMAWA1, M. S. ADAMU1,  M.  A.  OGUNDU2 , I.  C. OKOLI2 and  A. B. I.  UDEDIBIE2 1. Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal Polytechnic, Pmb 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria 2. Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria The objectives of the study were to investigate the socio-cultural, herd structure and reproductive practices of pastoralist cattle producers in Nigeria. The study was carried out with the aid questionnaires, oral interview and field observations on 300 respondents spread across the three study LGAs. Pastoral cattle production in Adamawa state was predominated by highly experienced (80 – 85%), married (75 - 88%), male (75 – 90%) Fulani (95 – 65%) Muslims (75 – 80%) aged mostly 31 – 40 years (48 – 55%) and having limited western education. White Fulani (50.00%) was the most common breed in Gombi LGA, while Red Bororo (53.00%) and Adamawa Gudali (50.00%) were the most predominant breeds in Mubi North and Jada LGAs respectively. Most of the pastoralist (40 – 50%) maintained herd size of 41 to 50 heads and reared cattle for multiple purposes such as breeding, milk, meat and traction. Farmers practiced uncontrolled breeding, with bull to cow ratio of 1:10 (75.00% at Mubi north LGA). First mating (50 – 60%) was done between 4 and 5 years, while age at first calving (73 -75%) was mostly 5 – 7 years indicating serious reproductive life wastage. Most pastoralists (55 – 65%) use ethno-veterinary practices to enhance cattle reproductive performance. Calving rates (75 – 85%) were more during late rainy season (LRS), while (90.00%) depended on natural pastures for feeding their cattle. Cattle graze ...

Influence of Contamination of Soil With Heavy Metal on the Growth of Three Herbaceous Plant Species

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Influence of Contamination of Soil With Heavy Metal on the Growth of Three Herbaceous Plant Species 1C.E., Igwe, 2J.N., Azorji and 2S.K., Iheagwam 1Department of Forestry and Environmental Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria 2Department of Biological Sciences, Hezekiah University, Umudi, P.M.B 3002 Ishiala Umudi, Imo State, Nigeria. Contemporary literatures are awash with Heavy metal contamination in soils as a source of global environmental concern. Cultivation of crops on these contaminated soils may result in accumulation of heavy metals resulting in possible risks on human health. For this reason, a pot experiment was conducted between May and August 2016 at the green house of the Department of Forestry and Environmental Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. The experiment was specifically aimed at evaluating the influence of kaoline mined soil samples on the growth of three herbaceous plant species (Chromolaena odorata, Ipomoea involucrata and Mariscus alternifolius) commonly found at abandoned kaolin mining site at Ohiya in Umuahia South East, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with Six (6) replicates. Data were collected on Plant height, Number of leaves, fresh and dry weight. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Mean separations were done using Fisher LSD at 0.05% probability. Two mean values were subjected to studentized-t-test using statistical analytical system (SAS) software, version 8.0. The result showed that the kaolin mined soil sample significantly affected all the growth parameters measured during the study. Keywords: Soil, Heavy metals, herbaceous plants ...

Prevalence and Drug Resistance Patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in Food Producing Animals, Their Products and Humans

Review Article of International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine Review on the Prevalence and Drug Resistance Patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in Food Producing Animals, Their Products and Humans Fitsum Tessema* Fitsum Tessema, Hawassa Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 2126, Hawassa, Ethiopia Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive bacterium that belongs to coagulase positive staphylococcus. It is widely distributed in the environment and causes diseases due to direct infection or due to the production of toxins by the bacteria. The prevalence of S. aureus ranges from 4% to 83% in different countries of the world from samples of food producing animals and their products. In Ethiopia the lowest and highest prevalence is reported as 4.2% and 48.75%, respectively. All mammals and birds are susceptible to colonization with S. aureus. Staphylococcus aureus can be treated with a wide range of antibiotics but there are efficient and inefficient antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance tests that have been conducted in different countries revealed that S. aureus were highly resistant to Ampicillin, Cloxacillin and Penicillin and less susceptible to Vancomycin and Rifampicin. The emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animal and human has become a worldwide problem. Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Prevalence, Drug resistance, Food producing animal ...

Reproductive Performance of Zebu Cattle Following Artificial Insemination (AI) in Adamawa State, North-Eastern Nigeria

Research Article of International Journal of Animal Research Reproductive Performance of Zebu Cattle Following Artificial Insemination (AI) in Adamawa State, North-Eastern Nigeria Kubkomawa, H. I., Abubakar, S. N. and Adamu, M. S. Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal Polytechnic, Pmb 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria The precarious supply of animal products to Nigerian populace may worsen if livestock production is still based on the use of multipurpose indigenous cattle breeds with genetically low productive potentials. The main objective of this study was to determine the reproductive performance of Zebu cattle in an AI program in The Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Livestock Farm, Adamawa State, North-Eastern Nigeria. Twenty (20) female Zebu cattle comprising heifers and cows were selected at random from the cattle herds, February to March, 2016. The insemination was performed via recto-vaginal technique following estrus synchronization, using prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). The results of the study showed animal age ranging from three (3) to ten (10) years old with parity from 0 to 5. The body condition scores of the animals vary from 2.0 to 2.5 indicating poor nutrition and management practices at the period. There was 100% estrus detection rate since all animals displayed signs of heat and were turned in for insemination. The findings showed a low success rate of 25% with higher failure rate of 75%. It was concluded that, Ayrshire and Brahman crossed Zebu female cattle through AI, though gave low fertility rates at the first attempt, is still the rapid means of improving milk production and reproductive efficiency of the combined adaptability and hardiness of the Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) with the genetically high reproductive and milk yield potentials of the exotic breeds (Bos taurus). There is still room for an in-depth future study of the effects of upgrading indigenous Zebu cattle crossed with exotic ...

Thaumatococcus daniellii Benn. (Marantaceae) Leaf Methanol Extract Possessed Hepatoprotective Effect Against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury in Albino Rats

Research Article of International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine Thaumatococcus daniellii Benn. (Marantaceae)  Leaf Methanol Extract Possessed Hepatoprotective Effect Against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury in Albino Rats Ukwubile CA, 2Musa YD and  2Troy SM 1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Biology Unit, School of Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Nigeria. 2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. [Background]Acetaminophen or Paracetamol is widely used as analgesic and antipyretic or antimalarial drug, but at high dose it leads to undesirable side effects, such as hepatotoxicity. [Objective]This present study demonstrates the in vivo hepatoprotective effect of Thaumatococcus daniellii against acetaminophen induced liver toxicity. [Methods] Acetaminophen- induced liver injury was evaluated by an increase in serum AST (or SGOT), ALT (or SGPT), ALP activity and bilirubin level accompanied by significant decrease in albumin level. [Results] Acetaminophen hepatoxicity was manifested by an increase in lipid peroxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in liver tissue. Oral administration of the plant extract protects the rats against acetaminophen induced liver injury by increased lipid peroxidation, restored altered serum marker enzymes and antioxidant level to normal liver morphology.[Conclusion]The results showed that T. daniellii leaf extract displayed significant liver healing efficacy against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The result further affirm the use of the plant as an ethno-medicinal prescription for liver related injury. Keywords: Acetaminophen, hepatoprotective, Thaumatococcus daniellii, liver injury. Abbreviations Used: ALT = Alanine aminotransaminase or serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, AST = Aspartate aminotransaminase or serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, ALP = alkaline phosphatase ...

Soluble fibrin as a biomarker for intrahepatic microthrombosis in acute-on-chronic liver failure

Research Article of International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine Value of soluble fibrin as a biomarker for intrahepatic microthrombosis and its sequel acute-on-chronic liver failure in chronic hepatitis C patients Ehab F. Mostafa, Waleed A. Ismail, Amr Elhwary1, Ayman M. Marei 2. 1. Internal medicine department, Hepatology divison, Zagazig University. 2. Microbiology department, Zagazig University. Background: There is a lack in finding the precipitating factor in acute –on chronic liver failure (ACLF)insult in large number of patients and either this factor is hepatic or extra hepatic origin. Aim of the work : Our study aiming to evaluate the potential usefulness of a new plasma soluble fibirin polymer (SF) assay for diagnosing the possibility of occurrence of intrahepatic microthrombosis as a cause of ACLF in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus. Patients & Methods: The study was carried out in Zagazig University Hospital, internal medicine department in collaboration with microbiology department from February 2015 tell November 2015. 50 patients having chronic hepatitis c virus was enrolled in this study with ACLF developing new onset ascitis in 15 patient encephalopathy in 12 patients, jaundice in12 and elevated INR in 11 patients all having regular follow-up in hepatology clinic in Zagazig university Hospital with stable clinical course in the previous three months. Control subject was classified as normal subject 20 and 30 patients with compensated chronic hepatitis C virus infection. All patients and control groups were subjected to full history, complete clinical examination and laboratory tests including CBC, INR, serum albumin, serum bilirubin, liver enzymes, ascitic fluid examination and culture, blood culture, alpha-fetoprotein, d D-dimer, thrombin generation and soluble fibrin polymer., abdominal ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound for portal vein. Results: Our results showed significant difference between patients group and both  control groups regarding SF and D-dimer, also there were significant differences in patients group ...