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Popularization of traditional and complementary medicine: Urging voluminous effort driving towards scientific evaluation of safety and efficacy

Review Article of International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Popularization of traditional and complementary medicine: Urging voluminous effort driving towards scientific evaluation of safety and efficacy Papiya Bigoniya Principal, Radharaman College of Pharmacy, Ratibad, Bhopal, 462002, M.P., India Traditional medicines are widely used in developing countries with fast gaining popularity all over the world. Traditional medicine practices has long historical background that passes on from generation to generation. The quantity and quality, safety and efficacy of traditional medicine has became a worldwide concern emphasizing the need to develop harmonized international standards. The global market for herbal remedies is about $83 billion and growing at 10 to 20 percent yearly with the top global players like Germany, Asia, Japan, Europe and North America. Traditional therapies have a popular perception lower adverse effects rate as consumers perceive that natural sourced products are less likely to cause problems. The common causes of herbal product related adverse reaction occurrence are use toxic herbs, overdose, drug–herb interactions and idiosyncratic reactions. Herbal are mostly used over the counter without knowledge or advice of practitioner rising safety concern. Quality issues of traditional products are due to improper processing, adulteration, misidentification, missing of one or more herbs in a product, substitution, inclusion of prescription drugs, contamination and variability in active ingredient. Scientific study to assess safety and efficacy, composition, dosage form requirements are need of the time. Regulations governing the safety, quality and efficacy of traditional and complementary therapies vary widely from country to country and many countries do not have formal system for traditional and complementary medicine registration. Implementation of good manufacturing practice in cultivation, harvesting and processing along with chromatographic fingerprinting will greatly contribute to quality control of traditional medicines. Rigorous research is required for preclinical safety-efficacy, toxicology and clinical trials of traditional and complementary medicine. Boosting ...

Study on Vegetative Propagation using bulbs of Wild onion [Urginea indica (Roxb.) Kunth] in Herbal Garden for Ex-situ conservation

Research Article of Journal of Herbal Medicine Research Study on Vegetative Propagation using bulbs of Wild onion [Urginea indica (Roxb.) Kunth] in Herbal Garden for Ex-situ conservation D. K. Patel* Department of Rural Technology, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, (A Central University), Bilaspur, 495009, Chhattisgarh, India. Review method: Single-blind; Peer reviewer comments: 1. Plants are showing variable tendency in their morphological structure and also in their habit, habitat and presence in nature. These are also performing a major role in construction of biodiversity in certain ecological areas. Fr seasonal appearances in nature plants are showing diversity in their propagation rate and modes. Seeds are important structure developed after fertilization in plants but the plants which does not includes seeds in their life are well potent to propagate using their vegetative parts and/or by the modified structures like bulb, tuber, rhizome etc. Wild onion [Urginea indica (Roxb.) Kunth] includes bulbs inside of soil which after maturation produces many small bulbs. These adventitious buds are separated from mother bulb carefully without damage the bulbs and are used as a plant source to develop new individuals of this plant. The current experiment was done in prepared poly bags (filled with soil, sand and manure mixture equally) followed by the proper supply of the water. During of the experimentation necessary facilities provided as per need of the developing bulbs to convert in to new plant. Above rapid propagation was made in herbal garden aimed for its propagation as well as for ex-situ conservation. Keywords: Urginea indica (Roxb.) Kunth, Bulb, Vegetative propagation, Herbal garden, Ex-situ conservation ...

Evaluation of ameliorative potential of isolated flavonol fractions from Thuja occidentalis in lung cancer cells and in Benzo(a)pyrene induced lung toxicity in mice

Research Article of International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Evaluation of ameliorative potential of isolated flavonol fractions from Thuja occidentalis in lung cancer cells and in Benzo(a)pyrene induced lung toxicity in mice Avinaba Mukherjee1, Sourav Sikdar1 and Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh1* 1Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, West Bengal, India. Review method: Single-blind; Peer reviewer comments: 2. Relative anticancer potentials of six flavonol fractions (F1-F6) isolated from Thuja occidentalis extract were first evaluated against lung cancer cells A549 in vitro, and fraction- F4 showing the maximum protective ability, was then tested in mice intoxicated with Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a known carcinogen with major effect on lung, to learn if this could also have ameliorative action against lung toxicity and tissue damage in mice in vivo. Chemical nature of F1-F6 fractions was confirmed with specific flavonol confirmatory test and mass spectral analysis; all fractions were tested for their possible anticancer effects against A549 cells. Results suggested that fraction 4 (F4) had the strongest anticancer effect. When treated to BaP intoxicated mice, F4 induced recovery of damaged lung tissue, presumably through inhibition of ROS generation, and enhanced production of major antioxidant molecules, that in turn blocked PI3K-activated expressions of Akt. Decrease in Bcl2/Bax ratio, over-expression of p53 gene and activation of caspase 3 were observed in tissues of F4 treated mice, further confirming apoptotic cell death as its major target. The F4 fraction of Thuja occidentalis extract showed remarkable apoptotic potential against lung cancer cells and ameliorative ability against BaP induced lung toxicity. Keywords: Flavonol; benzo[a]pyrene toxicity; lung toxicity; PI3K/Akt pathway; reactive oxygen species (ROS), Thuja occidentalis ...

Bak Foong Pill and Bak Foong Capsule

Review Article of Journal of Herbal Medicine Research Bak Foong Pill and Bak Foong Capsule Siyao Ma* Shen Zhen Tian Yue Pharmaceutical Co. ,LTD., Shenzhen, Guangdong, China Review method: Single-blind; Peer reviewer comments: 1. ABSTRACT Bak Foong pill is a well known prescription to treat gynecological disorders in China. It comprises with more than 20 Chinese herbs including Wuji, Antler, Turtle Shell, Oysters, Sang Cuttlebone, Ginseng, Astragalus, Angelica, White Peony Root, Cyperus, Aspartame, Licorice, Rehmannia, Chuanxiong, silver Bupleurum, Salvia, Yam and Gorgon et al.. Based on the theory of Chinese Medicine, its indications include Qi and blood deficiency, frail, weak waist, irregular menstruation and uterine bleeding vaginal discharge. Previous studies mainly focused on reporting Bak Foong pill. In this review, we will introduce Bak Foong capsule, a new type of Bak Foong preparation, and compare the difference between Bak Foong Pill and Bak Foong capsule based on their prescription composition, indications and modern clinical application. In conclusion, Bak Foong capsule has the same function as Bak Foong pill although Bak Foong capsule has less Chinese herbs. More studies on Bak Foong capsule will help us treat diseases like uterine bleeding vaginal discharge and know the possible difference between Bak Foong pill and Bak Foong capsule. Keywords: Bak Foong Pill, Bak Foong capsule, Wujibaifeng pill, Wujibaifeng capsule ...

The effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Blood- Brain Barrier

Review Article of Journal of Herbal Medicine Research The effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Blood- Brain Barrier  Lihong Deng and Shao Liu* Zhongshan Asia Pacific Hospital, 3 Nanjiang Road, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China Review method: Single-blind; Peer reviewer comments: 1. ABSTRACT The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which can open under both physiology and pathophysiology, is an important diffusion barrier to brain. It can block many componds from blood and protect the brain. BBB is mainly built by cerebral endothelium, tight junctions, adherens junctions, astrocytes, and pericytes and extracellular matrix. Each element plays specific roles to protect the brain. Currently, one of the limitations to treat CNS diseases is that most drugs can not pass through the BBB and can not directly affect the focus of infection. So drugs which could help BBB open would help us to treat CNS diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been wildly used in China to treat all kinds of diseases, and some of them, like Borneol, Acorus tatarinowii Schott, Moschus, Storax and Benzoin, has notably dual effects on the permeability of the BBB. They can both reduce and increase the the permeability of the BBB. More studies on the effects on Chinese herbal medicine’s effects on BBB may help us out of the limitation that brain drugs can not pass through the BBB. Keywords: blood-brain barrier, Chinese herbal medicine, Borneol, Acorus tatarinowii Schott, Moschus, Storax, Benzoin ...

Chinese Herbal Medicine and Stroke- a Short Review

Review Article of Journal of Herbal Medicine Research Chinese Herbal Medicine and Stroke- a Short Review Min Xu Hainan Radio & TV University, Longhua 2nd Cross Rd, Longhua, Haikou, Hainan, China Review method: Single-blind; Peer reviewer comments: 1. ABSTRACT Stroke is one of the primary cause of long- term disability. Although mounting studies focused on stroke research, currently, only available treatment for stroke is t-PA, with the limitation of a very narrow therapeutic window because of the risk of hemorrhage. So, new therapeutic methods for stoke are expected. Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat stroke with a history of many centuries and is stilling wildly used in China. This review focuses on reporting the research progress of the Chinese herbal medicine including Acorus tatarinowii Schott, Borneol, Moschus  and other herbal medicine in stroke. The Conclusion is Chinese herbal medicine including Acorus tatarinowii Schott, Borneol and Moschus could reduce stroke injury and help brain recovery after stroke. More studies in Chinese herbal medicine and stroke may help us to develop a useful treatment for stroke. Keywords: Chinese herbal medicine, stroke, Acorus tatarinowii Schott, Borneol, Moschus ...