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Correlation Between Udder Traits With Breed, Live Weight, Age and Parity in Respect to Milk Production of Indigenous Goats

Research Article of International Journal of Animal Research Correlation Between Udder Traits With Breed, Live Weight, Age and Parity in Respect to Milk Production of Indigenous Goats in Adamawa State, North-eastern Nigeria Raphel, J.1, Tizhe, M.A.2, Shua, J.N.2 and Kubkomawa, H.I.2 1. Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria 2. Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 35 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria The objective of the study is to correlate between udder traits with breed, live weight, age and parity in respect to milk production of indigenous goats in Adamawa State, North-Eastern Nigeria. Thirteen households were randomly selected for the study from which 55 semi-intensively managed indigenous goats comprising of 13 Sahel, 20 Sokoto Red and 22 Non-descript Does within the age limits of 1, 2, 3 and 4 years and parities of 1, 2, and 3 respectively. Age, parity, live weight (Lwt) and udder parameters, like: teat floor (TF), teat angle (TA), udder length (UL), udder volume (UV) and teat length (TL) were measured. The Sahel does have higher values of Lwt, TF, TA, UL, UV, and TL respectively. The three breeds did not differ significantly in TA. The difference between Sokoto Red and Non-descriptive goat was only in TF distances. Sokoto Red goats had significantly higher (P < 0.05) value of TF than Non-descript goats. All other udder traits increased numerically with advance in age except for TA. There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of parity on Lwt, TF, and UV. The values of all the parameters measured increased with increase in parity, except TA that was highest in does in their first parity. There was significant (P < 0.01) age x breed interaction effect on all parameters investigated except TA. The Sahel does exhibited ...

Generalization of Hadamard Matrices

Research article of American Journal of Computer Sciences and Applications Generalization of Hadamard Matrices Dr. Ahmad Hamza Al Cheikha Dep. of Mathematical Science, College of Arts-science and Education Ahlia Uni., Manama, Bahrain Hadamard’s matrices are used widely at the forward links of communication channels to mix the information on connecting to and at the backward links of these channels to sift through this information is transmitted to reach the receivers this information in correct form, specially in the pilot channels, the Sync channels, the traffic channel and so much applications in the fields; Modern communication and telecommunication systems, signal processing, optical multiplexing, error correction coding, and design and analysis of statistics. This research is useful to generate new sets of orthogonal matrices by generalization Hadamard matrices,with getting bigger lengths and bigger minimum distance by using binary representation of the matrices that assists to increase secrecy of these information, increase the possibility of correcting mistakes resulting in the channels of communication, giving idea to construct new coders and decoders by mod p with more complexity for using these matrices and derivation new orthogonal codes or sequences. Keywords: Hadamard matrix, Binary vector, Coefficient of Correlation, Walsh’s Sequences, Orthogonal sequences, Kronecker product, Code ...

Consumers Understanding and Utilization of labels used in Dairy Products

Research Article of International Journal of Animal Research Consumers Understanding and Utilization of labels used in Dairy Products Priyajoy Kar1*, H.R. Meena2 and A.P. Verma1 1Dairy Extension Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-13200 (Haryana) 2Faculty of Dairy Extension Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-13200 (Haryana) This study was conducted to determine the consumers understanding regarding the food labels in the dairy products and to find out its utility in consumers daily life. Primary data was collected by interviewing 200 consumers (NDRI and GADVASU milk parlor), who were the regular consumers of the milk products in the two distinct areas of northern India to find out the differences in their purchasing pattern. The result revealed that majority of the consumers reads the food labels on initial purchase of their food items. Consumers were well comprehended with the food labels used in the food items. Different kinds of information like Expiration Date (99.50%), Ingredients (78.40%), Health claims (66.80%) and Nutritional information (65.30%) were mostly used by the consumers, and they look for it in the dairy food products labels. Expiry Date was most commonly used by consumers as an indication of freshness, shelf life and food safety across a range of foods. The findings proposed the improvement of consumers knowledge regarding food labels used in the dairy products. Keywords: Understanding, utility, food labels, ingredients, expiration date ...

CUBISM, STRAVINSKY AND RITE OF SPRING

Research article of American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews CUBISM, STRAVINSKY AND RITE OF SPRING Özlem ONUK Assistant Professor Dr., Gaziosmanpaşa University Education Faculty, The Department of Music Education, Tokat/ Turkey Each art period or movement has been an effective form of expression for its time and mostly emerged as reaction to the previous art movement. This study discusses the emergence cubism as a form of artistic expression and its style through the works and examines the composer Igor Stravinsky's Rite of Spring in the context of cubism. For cubism, the deformation of the usual, objective order of the universe appears as an inevitable mandatory principle. With this movement, it is possible to reshape the form in different ways through formlessness, to distort all and reincorporate all known forms and achieve new forms. In the heart of cubism, there lies the principle of expressing the idea of imagining and describing the things that happen in separate places together as if they are happening at the same time, by combining it with the pleasure of confusion. Cubism is a window opening to modern art and the most important step taken on this path. The influences of cubism have manifested themselves in the different musical structure of Stravinsky's Rite of Spring. His music (the main theme) has been built on a rhythmic structure that can be defined as complex. The spontaneous and intuitive and impulsive reflection of artist's impressions regarding the object, is evident in the intuitive rhythm, chord and unique texture of Stravinsky's work.  It is expressed that there is no intellectual system used in the formation of the harmonic language of the "Rite of Spring", that it is only based on inner perception. Keywords: Cubism, Rite of Spring, Stravinsky ...

Surveillance of enteric parasites in an infectious diseases hospital, Kolkata, India

Research Article of American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Surveillance of enteric parasites in an infectious diseases hospital, Kolkata, India Sumallya Karmakar, Shanta Dutta and Sandipan Ganguly* ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, P 33 CIT Road, Scheme XM< Beliaghata, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal, India A hospital-based laboratory surveillance was conducted to study the prevalence and intensity of enteric parasites in India, with a special emphasis on West Bengal. The survey was conducted among the patients admitted between January 2010 and December 2015 to the Infectious Diseases (ID) Hospital with diarrhoeal complaints. The present study reports the occurrence and prevalence of 3 most abundant enteric parasites, viz. Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporadium sp. in Kolkata and surrounding. Of the 4208 samples screened during the study period from ID Hospital, 297 (7.05%) were positive for Giardia lamblia, 20 (0.475%) were positive for Entamoeba histolytica and 94 (2.23%) were positive for Cryptosporidium sp. Keywords: Surveillance, enteric parasites, infectious diseases hospital, Kolkata, India ...

Comparitve Effects of Moringa Oleifera Pods, Probiotics and Vitamin E/selenium on Body Weight Gain of Abor- Acre Broiler Chickens

Research Article of American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Comparitve Effects of Moringa Oleifera Pods, Probiotics and Vitamin E/selenium on Body Weight Gain of Abor- Acre Broiler Chickens 1*MUSA, I.W., 1BELLO, Y.M. and 2ANDAMIN, A.D. 1Department of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 2Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal College of Horticultural Technology, Dadin-kowa, Gombe State. Phytonutrients are reliable solutions to public health concerns on antibiotic resistance and adverse effects of synthetic growth promoters. This study evaluated the effects of Moringa oleifera pods and probiotic on the growth performance of broiler chickens. A total of 100-day-old ABOR-ACRE broiler chicks with average weight of 38 grams were purchased from a hatchery in Ibadan and used for this study. The chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups (A, B, C and D). Group A was fed basal diet supplemented with air dried Moringa oleifera pods powder at inclusion rate of 50g/kg, group B fed basal diet supplemented with a commercial probiotic (Bactofort®) at 0.5g/kg, group C that was fed commercial feed and supplemented vit E/Selenium in drinking water while group D fed only commercial feed served as control. Chickens in all groups were served same quantities of feed and water ad-libitum. Birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease (B1 and la Sota live vaccines-IZOVAC®) on days 7, 14 and 28. The birds were weighed weekly and feed intake evaluated. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and two-way ANOVA. Results showed significant difference (p<0.05) of weight gain of birds fed M. oleifera and probiotic. M. oleifera pods powder significantly improved live weight gain thus serving as alternative to commercial growth promoters in broilers. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Probiotics, Vitamin E, Growth performance, Broilers ...