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Astaxanthin: The possible effects of this carotenoid on disease, inflammation and aging control. A meta-analysis

Review Article of International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research Astaxanthin: The possible effects of this carotenoid on disease, inflammation and aging control. A meta-analysis Ferro M.*, Graubard A. and Beauchesne T. FG Scientifica and Science Department at Nutrition Formulators Inc., Miramar, Fl, 10407 N Commerce, Parkway, Miramar, Fl 33025 Miramar, Fl, USA Astaxanthin (ATX), a red pigment that belongs to the xanthophyll subclass of carotenoids, has a strong antioxidant ability and can eliminate singlet oxygen (O2-) as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation. ATX can also prevent mitochondrial dysfunction by permeating and co-localizing within the mitochondria and inhibit the release of cytochrome c resulting from mitochondrial permeabilization and, thus, prevent mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic cell death. Due to its antioxidant capacity and modulating properties of cell signaling, ATX exhibits a variety of beneficial biological activities among them protection against UV damage, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity, metabolic syndrome (MS) relief, cardioprotective effects, antidiabetic activity, prevention of neuronal damage, anti-aging and anticancer activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate what has been published about ATX in PubMed/Medline between 2020-2021. The results were distributed in four Tables as follows: Table 1-Publication types; Table 2- Proposal for evaluating the article in vivo; Table 3- Cells markers used in clinical studies in vivo; Table 4- Astaxanthin in human clinical trial. We could observe that the interest of the scientific community has been growing in relation to the benefits of ATX. The results presented in the articles evaluated in this meta-analysis showed us that AXT is already a reality as an option in treatments for various diseases, including glaucoma, heart and vascular injury, type 2 diabetes and fatty liver. We conclude that ATX may not only be a promising nutraceutical as an ally to alternative treatments of the pathologies mentioned above, but ...

Microbiological Analysis and pH Determination of Drinking Water Samples from Public Schools

Research Article of International Research Journal of Public Health Microbiological Analysis and pH Determination of Drinking Water Samples from Public Schools in the Municipality of Recife/PE Rosana Maria da Conceição Silva1, Cléber José da Silva1, Bruno Joaquim de Santana2, Fabrícia Karla da Silva3 Federal University of Pernambuco1, Estacio of Recife University2, Maurício de Nassau University3 Water is considered a finite natural resource and one of the essential elements of life. It is used in various work activities such as agriculture, industry, livestock, public supply, energy generation, among others [15]. According to SPERLING (2006) [38], only 2.493% of the water on the planet is suitable for the consumption of humans and animals and 0.0007% of the water accessible for consumption is present in the atmosphere, rivers and lakes. It is estimated that more than one billion people worldwide do not have access to treated water, as its supply is not made on an equal basis due to population growth, economic activities and uneven distribution contrasted with different populations. between rural and urban areas [3, 21,33,]. Problems related to water shortages in the metropolitan regions of Brazilian states are increasingly present in everyday life, and can be attributed to factors involving administrative processes, such as the high cost of drinking water treatment, pollution of water tables, increased demand for water. consumption and climatic factors. In this sense, the use of water for poor quality consumption is an alternative for regions experiencing shortages and has a direct impact on the health of individuals, especially workers and students, as about 80% of the infectious and parasitic diseases that affect developing countries are due to poor quality water, directly impacting the individual's health [10,17,18,28,36,37]. The water potability standards in Brazil are described in Ordinance GM / MS No. 2,914, of December 12, 2011, which portrays ...

Inflammatory Processes, Viral Infections and Dental Practice during Covid-19

Review Article of International Journal of Dental Research and Reviews Inflammatory Processes, Viral Infections and Dental Practice during Covid-19 Aurora Karla de Lacerda Vidal¹, Mônica Moreira Dias da Cruz2, Angélica Lopes Frade¹, Anna Danielly Almeida do Nascimento¹, Beatriz Santos Borges¹, Cristianne de Barros Santos¹, Fernanda Teles Pereira¹, Laís Azevedo Lins de Holanda¹ 1Institute of Biological Sciences, Oncology Center - Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital of the University of Pernambuco (ICB / CEON - HUOC / UPE); 2Pediatric Oncohematology Center - Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital of the University of Pernambuco (CEONPE - HUOC / UPE) The mouth is a natural reservoir of several microorganisms resulting from various ecological determinants, being conducive to contagion, as it is an open system for contamination, to which the oral health team is exposed. This microbiota, in general, is in harmony with the host and is quite relevant, as it contributes to the development of the mucous immune system. However, local and/or systemic changes can result in imbalance and clinical manifestation of diseases in the mouth, as reported in this chapter, about coronavirus, hepatitis, herpes, varicella-zoster, infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus, ebola, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Oral hygiene is essential to maintain harmony between normal oral microbiota and external contamination, and, as is known, the mouth is part of the digestive and respiratory system and, in this moment of the lethal and quite contagious SARS-VOC 2 pandemic, the dental practice needs to reinforce biosafety care and reduce the vulnerability of staff and patients, in order to favor the good practices of home dental care, outpatient and/or hospital assistance. Keywords: Inflammatory Processes; Viral Infections; Dental Practice; Covid-19 ...

Neuroinflammation

Review Article of International Journal of Neuroscience Research NEUROINFLAMMATION Gustavo Leite Franklin, M.D., Ph.D.1; Nayra de Souza Carvalho Lima, Msc.2; Alex Tiburtino Meira, M.D., Msc, Ph.D.3, Lucas Andrade Ferreti, M.D.1; Conrado Regis Borges, M.D4 1Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná. 2Universidade Vila Velha, Espírito Santo. 3 Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Paraíba. 4Universidade de São Paulo – FMUSP, São Paulo Inflammation is a complex process, mediated by cellular and molecular mechanisms caused by a response to a tissue damage from an aggressive agent, whether if biological, chemical or physical origin. This process occurs, ultimately, with the purpose of promoting defense, repair and tissue regeneration. The inflammatory process leads to changes in blood vessels that have their diameter and flow altered, with the objective of leading to increased vascular permeability and consequent leakage of fluids and cells into the extracellular space of the affected tissue. This sequence of events generates the cardinal signs of inflammation, which are: pain, heat, redness, edema, with loss or alteration of function. The process occurs through mechanisms induced by cytokines and that despite having local manifestation, it can lead to systemic responses involving the whole organism with fever, chills, tremors, tachycardia, leukocytosis, sweating, diuresis and blood dyscrasias. In the cascade of events related to inflammation, there is initially a local stimulus that promotes morphological and functional changes in the attacked tissue that trigger the release of signaling molecules, the defensins that have a chemotactic effect on monocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes, and pro-inflammatory mediators. that are directly involved in the next inflammatory phases. There is, then, the recognition of aggression and the aggressor agent by the receptors of cells of the immune system and release of inflammatory mediators, of the cyclooxygenase pathway that will release prostaglandin, prostacyclins and thromboxanes and by the lipooxygenase pathway that will produce ...

THE TWO-WAY STREET BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASES AND DIABETES

Review Article of International Research Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism The Two-way Street between Periodontal Diseases and Diabetes Renata Cimões1, Roberto Carlos Mourão Pinho2 1Associate Professor of the Department of Prosthesis and Buco-Facial Surgery at UFPE; Post-Doctorate in Periodontics Eastman Dental Institute, London. PhD in Dentistry; Specialist in Periodontics; ITI Fellow, Speaker and Study Club Director; 2Post-Doctorate in Dentistry UFPE; PhD in Dentistry UFPE; Specialist in Dentistry for Patients with Special Needs; Specialist in Endodontics; Molecular Biology Specialist Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is initiated by the accumulation of dental biofilm, where dysbiosis leads to a chronic non-resolving condition, and destructive inflammatory response. The destruction of tissues that we clinically recognize as periodontitis (that is, destruction of the periodontal ligament, periodontal pocket formation and alveolar bone resorption) is caused mainly by the host’s inflammatory response to the bacterial challenge presented by the biofilm [38]. Periodontitis affects, in its severe forms, approximately 10% of the global population, which represents almost 750 million people worldwide[16]. The prevalence of periodontitis among all adults aged 30 years and over registered by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States is 46% [8]. In addition, periodontitis has been found to be more severe and 3 times more likely to occur in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to the general population [14,25], and the level of glycemic control is the key to determining risk, and similar to other diabetes complications, the risk of periodontitis increases with a worse glycemic index [33]. DM, a chronic non-communicable metabolic disease, occurs when blood glucose levels are increased, or because the body cannot produce any, or enough insulin, or use insulin effectively [15]. Keywords: Periodontal Diseases; Diabetes ...

Monitoring Parasitic Contamination of the Beaches Sand and Public Squares of Northeast Brazil: a Comparative Approach

Research Article of International Research Journal of Public Health Monitoring Parasitic Contamination of the Beaches Sand and Public Squares of Northeast Brazil: a Comparative Approach Paulo Henrique Valença Nunes1, Celina Cavalcante Muniz Gomes2, Emmanuel Nóbrega Travassos de Arruda2, Lidiane Paloma Santos2, José Rafael da Silva Araujo3, Francisca Janaina Soares Rocha4 1Master's student at the Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences. Federal University of Pernambuco, 2Graduate student in Biomedicine. Federal University of Pernambuco, 3Doctoral Student of the Postgraduate Program in Genetics Federal University of Pernambuco 4Associate professor at the Medical Sciences Center (CCM), Federal University of Pernambuco. This work aims to evaluate the parasite presence in the sand of two squares and beaches/parks in the metropolitan region of Recife-PE and João Pessoa-PB, to compare the frequencies of the main parasitological species in these locations. The samples were collected in 2014 from three different depths of the soil (surface, 10 cm, and 20 cm), obtaining 96 samples from the metropolitan regions of Recife-PE and 48 samples from João Pessoa-PB. In Recife were detected a high number of positive samples from beaches (70.8%) and squares (25.7%) compared to João Pessoa, which reached 45.8% and 25%, respectively. Twelve parasite species were identified, distributed predominantly in the samples collected in 10 and 20 cm. In Pernambuco, the species Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Endolimax nana were the most recurrent on the beaches, while Toxocara sp. and Iodamoeba butschilii were more frequent in the parks. In the Paraíba were identified only Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar on the beaches. While Ancylostoma sp., Cryptosporidium spp, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were the most recurrent in the Paraíba squares. This study highlights the contamination of parasites in public environments (squares/beaches) to alert the need for actions aimed at combating parasites in these places. Keywords: Parasitic Contamination; Beaches Sand; Public Squares; Northeast Brazil ...