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Traditional to Smart Irrigation Methods in India: Review

Review Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Traditional to Smart Irrigation Methods in India: Review Sirisha Adamala Applied Engineering Department, Vignan’s Foundation for Science, Technology and Research University, Vadlamudi-522213 Guntur, Andhra Pradesh Irrigation is the controlled application of water for agricultural purposes through manmade systems to supply water requirements that are not satisfied by the rainfall. Crop irrigation is vital throughout the world in order to provide the world's ever-growing populations with enough food. Many different irrigation methods from traditional to smart ones are used over worldwide, including: surface, sub-surface, sprinkler, drip, and advanced or smart to satisfy the plants thrust. In this paper efforts have been made to present the basics of different irrigation systems adapted by the Indian farmers to grow their crops. Keywords: Irrigation methods, wireless sensor networks, sprinkler, drip, surface, India ...

Factors Affecting Sustainability Of Melon (Egusi) Production

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Factors Affecting Sustainability Of Melon (Egusi) Production In Rural Farming Households Of Southwest, Nigeria Oyediran, W. O.1, Omoare, A. M.2 and Ajagbe, B. O.3 1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural Science Education, Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. 3Department of Primary Education Studies, Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria Melon crop plays important roles in the farming system and in the nutritional diet and economic well-being of West African rural dwellers. However, there has been continuous decline in the melon yield in last two decades. Also, cultivation of melon is not without challenges like every other arable crop in southwest Nigeria. Hence, this paper focused on factors affecting melon (egusi) production in rural farming households of southwest, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting 108 respondents from twenty villages in three LGAs of Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using interview guide and analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that 80.10% of melon farmers were males and 87.04% were married with a mean age of 41 years. Many (47.20%) of the melon farmers did not have formal education while 36.10% attended primary school. The mean year of farming experiences was 16 years. The farmers cultivated melon seeds obtained from their previous harvest (81.0%) and purchase seeds from the open markets (19.0%). Melon output declined from 376.53kg/ha in 2012 to 280.70kg/ha in 2014. Result of regression analysis showed that production input and socio-economic characteristics of the respondents (t = 0.19) have significant influence on melon output at p < 0.05. The study concludes that melon yield is declining in the study area. Hence, it is recommends that extension agents should teach the melon farmers ...

Histopathological Changes Of Cerebral Vessels Secondary To Drug Abuse

Research Article of Journal of Stroke Research Histopathological Changes Of Cerebral Vessels Secondary To Drug Abuse Zogopoulos Panagiotis, Theocharis Stamatios, Kotakidis Nikolaos, Patsouris Efstratios, Agapitos Emmanouel  First Department of Pathology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Drug abuse has been associated with a number of cerebrovascular adverse effects, such as hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. Heroin, cocaine and amphetamines are the most commonly abused substances but a systematic pathology study of their effects on human cerebral vessels has not been conducted to date. We present a post-mortem, comparative, pathology study on the brains of drug addicts and healthy controls. The aim of this study was to determine the pathological changes of the vascular lumen, vascular wall and perivascular areas observed in the post-mortem brain of drug addicts compared to those of non-drug addicts healthy controls. Keywords: drug abuse, vascular changes, brain, pathology ...

Bacteruria Associated Urogenital Infections Amongst Women “a Study On Assymptomatic And Symptomatic Presentation In Benin Metropolis, Nigeria”.

Research Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Bacteruria Associated Urogenital Infections Amongst Women “a Study On Assymptomatic And Symptomatic Presentation In Benin Metropolis, Nigeria”.  IBEH.N.ISAIAH1 (BMLS, AIMLS, MNAAS) 1Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, PMB 111 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Science, University Of Benin, PMB 1154, Introduction: Symptomatic and Asymptomatic urinary tract infection in women is of great importance to determine the causal and treatment of bacteruria in young women which may lead to disease states. Aim: to determine the occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in young women and its relationship with urinary tract infection Methods: A microbiological analysis of urine was done on 3600 young women in urban Benin metroplolis from July 2009 to July 2010, a total of 1105 microorganism were isolated from both Symptomatic and Asymptomatic young women. Results: From the 1105 isolates from the descending order of occurrences Escherichia coli, Kleibseilla spp, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus with Acinobacter spp with the least occurrence. Escherichia coli was the commonest cause of Asymptomatic urinary tract infection with 31.6 % and Acinectobacter sp 9.5% with the least occurrence of Asymptomatic urinary tract infections. Conclusion: This study shows that there is a rise in asymptomatic urinary tract infection amongst young women in Benin City. Keywords: BacterIuria, UTI, Asymptomatic ...

Management of Post Bilateral Pontine Haemorrhage with Ayurveda

Case report of Journal of Stroke Research Management of Post Bilateral Pontine Haemorrhage with Ayurveda Kajaria Divya Assistant Professor, Department of Kayachikitsa, C.B.P.A.C.S, New Delhi Background and Purpose. This case report documents the management of residual paralysis due to a rare and fatal disease – hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis with Ayurveda. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the role of Ayurvedic treatment methodology for management of such neurological disorders. Case Description: Mrs. PM was a 31 year old lady who suffered from an attack of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis after her second delivery. She had left hemiplegia with right sided LMN facial palsy with nystagmus and loss of control of posture and whole-limb movements. Some residual ability to use the right hand and fingers remained, provided the trunk and right upper arm were stabilized. Her cognitive power remains undiminished. Computed tomographic scans verified acute bilateral paramedian pontine hemorrhage with intraventricular extension. It also showed chronic infarcts in bilateral external capsules. Discussion. 15 days treatment with Ayurvedic medicines and Panchakarma procedures including Nasya and Tarapan therapies showed significant improvement in nystagmus, postural abnormalities and whole – body movement. Keywords: Nasya, Tarpana, Nystagmus, Ataxia ...

Detection of methicillin resistant and slime factor production of coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. in bovine clinical mastitis by using PCR

Research Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Detection of methicillin resistant and slime factor production of coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. in bovine clinical mastitis by using PCR S. M. El-Berbawy*; S.M. Sayed*;El-Toukhy, E. I. ** and Amal, A. Megahed*** * Assiut Lab. (Bacteriology Department) ** AHRI (Biotechnology Depart.) Dokki *** Port Said Lab. (Bacteriology Depart.) This study aims to investigate the slime production of Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates by phenotypic method on Congo Red Agar plates (CRA) and Genotypic detection of icaA, icaD and mecA genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of 105 milk samples obtained from clinical bovine mastitis, 101samples (96.2%) were positive for bacterial growth. CoNS isolates was detected in 20 isolates with a percentage of 19.8%. Their ability to form biofilm as one of the most important virulence factors of the organisms using Congo Red Agar (CRA) method was investigated in which 13 out of 17 CoNS isolates (76.47%) were found to be slime producers. By PCR, mecA gene was found in threeout of 6 CoNS isolates (50%). Also six (100%) and three (50%) isolates were positive for icaA gene and icaD gene, respectively. In addition one isolate out of the six CoNS isolates (16.67%) was positive for the presence of icaA, icaD and mecA genes and also has the ability to form biofilm. The in vitro activities of CoNS against 11 selected antimicrobial agents referred that the highest resistance rate of CoNS observed to Lincomycin (100%), followed by Cefotaxime (94.41%), Oxacillin (58.82%), Ampicillin (47.06%) and Penicillin (41.18%), while the highest rate of sensitivity observed to Enrofloxacin and Gentamicin (100%, for each), followed by Doxycycline (94.11%).Conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated the ability of CoNS isolated from bovine clinical mastitis to form biofilms. This must be considered as an alarming situation, ...