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Trade Friction and Chinese Innovation: A Case Study of the Semiconductor Industry

Research Article of Global journal of Economics and Business Administration Trade Friction and Chinese Innovation: A Case Study of the Semiconductor Industry Al-Sayed, Rafif and Yang Jianhua University of Science & Technology Beijing (USTB), China Major Chinese innovative technologies still depend on imported foreign core technologies. This dependence could affect sustaining growth in technological innovation for the Chinese Hi-Tech industry, which is one of the areas that has been most affected by the recent US-China trade conflict. The research explores if there is an impact of tension in trade scene on innovation in core technologies from the perspective of Hi-Tech industry experts in China. The method used a combination of semi-structured interviews and questionnaires addressed to experts and managers in the Chinese Hi-Tech industry. The statistical analysis used regression analysis of the experts’ answers where the findings propose a possible positive impact on endogenous innovation in the long term if it is combined with government policies that enhance innovation and increase R&D expenditures. The paper also highlighted the challenges that affect innovation in this industry and stresses the importance of the role of the entrepreneurial state that helped China to achieve breakthroughs in other domains. A case study of the semiconductor industry was analysed as a far-reaching endeavor, taking into account the scale of the challenges and the way forward for this significant core technology on which all of China’s Hi-Tech industries and exports depend. Keywords: Global Trade Friction, Chinese Innovation, Endogenous Innovation, Chinese semiconductor industry, Made in China 2025 ...

Space breeding in modern agriculture

Review Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Space breeding in modern agriculture Liling Jiang, Baochang Zhang, Weipeng Chen, Tianyuan Qiu,Linlin Wang, Shandong Yang* School of Agricultural Engineer and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China Space breeding, also known as aviation breeding or space technology breeding, is a new type of breeding technology developed in recent decades, which combines space technology, modern agricultural technology and biotechnology. Compared with traditional breeding technology, it can greatly improve the quality of agricultural products in a short period of time, create many high-quality provenances, well solve the problem of food shortage, and bring endless benefits to the world. Therefore, space breeding technology will play an important role in the rapid development of modern agriculture. In this paper, the principles and characteristics of space breeding, development status and future prospects at home and abroad are introduced. Keywords: Space breeding; mutagenic; Modern agriculture ...

Combining Ability and Gene Action of Tomato Hybrids (Lucopersicum Esculantum L.) Genotypes in Azerbaijan

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Combining Ability and Gene Action of Tomato Hybrids (Lucopersicum Esculantum L.) Genotypes in Azerbaijan Gulare Huseynzade, Zeynal Akperov, Sabir Hasanov Genetic Recources İnstitute, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, 155 Azadlig Avenue, Baku Az1106, Azerbaijan This work identifies the combining ability of 10 tomato (Lucopersicon esculantum) parents and 45 F1 hybrids obtained from 10 × 10 half diallel. The work aims to identify the parents with the best general combining ability (gca) and crosses with high specific combining ability (sca) for yield, quality and nature of gene action involved. The study was conducted within 2014 and 2017 at Absheron condition in Azerbaijan using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The combined analysis of variance showed that variance for gca and sca was highly significant for all the traits studied. This indicates that both additive and non-additive gene actions were operating in the inheritance of these traits. Parental level of gca revealed that introduced genotype (Masalli variety-form) had highest (5843.87) effect followed by Belarusian variety ‘Qarant’ (1930.97) for fresh pod yield and other related traits. The highest sca for hybrids was exhibited by Masalli variety-form x Ilkin, ‘Leyla x Masalli variety-form, ‘Shahin’ x Volqoqrad and Zorka x Shakar for yield and quality traits. This indicates the existence of immense potential for population improvement and heterosis breeding for enhancing productivity and qualities. The ratios of gca mean square to sca mean square were higher than unity for traits, indicating that additive gene action plays a predominant role in the inheritance of most of the traits. Keywords: combining ability, gene action, hybrid, traits, parents, quality, yield ...

Evaluation of some sugar beet varieties under different irrigation intervals

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Evaluation of some sugar beet varieties under different irrigation intervals Abdelaty,M.D1, Elshafay,A.m2 and Abu-Hussien,El.Kh3 1, 3: Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr Elshiekh University. 2: Sugars crops research institute, agriculture research center. The present study was conducted in at the experimental farm of the Sakha Agriculture Research Station, Kafr Elsheikh, Egypt during two growth seasons, 2015/16 and 2016/17 using split plot design to evaluate five of sugar beet varieties (Gloria, Toro, Almaz, Betamax and Demapoly) under different irrigation regimes (4 ,6 and 8 irrigations) in north delta. The treatments significantly affected on different characters, irrigation the plants six irrigations were superior than other ones in root length, root diameter, root weight , root yield and sucrose % values. On the other side, Betamax variety was the best for studied characters compared with other varieties. Keywords: sugar beet varieties, different irrigation intervals ...

Effects of Compaction at Different Moisture Contents on Selected Soil Properties and Sugarcane Growth and Sugar Yield at Metahara Sugar Estate

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Effects of Compaction at Different Moisture Contents on Selected Soil Properties and Sugarcane Growth and Sugar Yield at Metahara Sugar Estate Tesfaye Wakgari,1 Kibebew Kibret,2 Bobe Bedadi,2 Melesse Temesgen,3, Teklu Erikossa,4 1College of Natural Resource Management and Veterinary Science, Ambo University; 2School of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University; 3Engineering faculty, Addis Ababa University; 4Integrated Water Management Institute Although soil compaction has been reported as one of the most serious problems in mechanized sugar cane production, its impacts on soil physicochemical properties and plant growth and sugar yield have not been quantified in the Ethiopian Sugar Estates. A field experiment was conducted in 2016 at Metahara Sugar Estate with the objective of evaluating the effects of initial soil moisture content and number of tractor passes on compaction and resulting impact on selected soil physicochemical properties and sugarcane growth parameters and sugar yield. The field experiment consisted of factorial combinations of compacted soils at three different soil moisture levels (on 4th, 8th and 12th days after irrigation) and six tractor traffic passes (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 passes) which were replicated three times. The result of the study showed that the highest mean values of dry bulk density and penetration resistance were recorded in plots compacted by twenty to and fro passes of tractor. Both bulk density and penetration resistance showed non-linearly increasing pattern with increasing number of passes. The tallest (196 cm) and shortest (171 cm) cane at the age of 8 months were recorded, respectively, in plots with zero and 20 passes of tractor. Significantly higher values of sugar yield were recorded in plots with zero number of passes (control). Imposing of different number of passes on 4th and 8th days after irrigation gave significantly lower yield than ...

Mineralization of phosphorous by phosphate solubilising bacteria isolated from a vertisol

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Mineralization of phosphorous by phosphate solubilising bacteria isolated from a vertisol Vivek Singh, Bharati Kollah, Santosh Ranjan Mohanty* Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh, Bhopal, India 462038 The current experiment unravels P solubilisation potential of soil under long term fertilizer application. Soil samples collected from a 20 years old long term experimental field. Treatments included fallow (no fertilizer, no crop), control (no fertilizer, with crop), 100% N, 100% NP, 100% NPK, and 100% NPK+FYM. P solubilisation potential of soils determined using Ca3(PO4)2 as inorganic insoluble P source. Abundance of total bacteria, phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) estimated along with the efficient PSB isolated to evaluate P solubilisation potential using Ca3(PO4)2, rock phosphate and sodium phytate as P sources. P solubilisation rate was highest in 100% NP and lowest in fallow. Abundance of total eubacteria and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) was high in 100% NP and low in fallow. The 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates were homologues to Paraburkholderia sp. The efficient PSB isolate solubilised Ca3(PO4)2, rock phosphate as well as sodium phytate. Acid phosphatise activity was highest in Ca3(PO4)2 and lowest in sodium phytate. Study concludes that P solubilisation in vertisol under long term fertilizer application is regulated by nutrients, particularly P fractions and abundance of PSB. The PSB solubilise different P sources by reducing pH of medium as well as through acid phosphatase attributes. Keywords: Phosphorus solubilisation; long term fertilizer; vertisol; bacteria; 16S rRNA ...