The Effect of Different Irrigation Cycles and Salicylic Acid on Certain Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Viola tricolor L.

The Effect of Different Irrigation Cycles and Salicylic Acid on Certain Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Viola tricolor L.

Ali Ghaderian

Department of Horticultural science, College of Agriculture, Jahrom Islamic Azad University, Jahrom, Iran

American Journal of Agricultural Research

The influence of salicylic acid on environmental stress tolerance has been known since many years, but owing to the impact of drought stress on green space plants in Iran, for the first time, was utilized this hormone on viola cornuta Rebel in Shiraz. The experiment was factorial in a completely randomized design, with twelve treatments and four replications in each treatment. Three levels of irrigation cycle [0, 3, and 5 daily] were used for this seasonal flower and four levels of salicylic acid [0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM] were sprayed three times on the violets. The results represented salicylic acid at rates of [0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM], which, in interaction with the levels of the irrigation cycle [3, and 5 daily], can reduce the drought effect. Plant height, leaf area, leaf width, Chlorophyll a and b, proline content, and RWC increased and only the electrolyte leakage diminished. In the traits leaf length and carotenoid content, cannot be seen a noticeable difference; but, generally from the above findings, it can be concluded that salicylic acid declines water-stress effect on the majority of the pansy traits.

Keywords: Viola tricolor, salicylic acid, irrigation cycle, drought stress.

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:

Ali Ghaderian. The Effect of Different Irrigation Cycles and Salicylic Acid on Certain Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Viola tricolor L.. American Journal of Agricultural Research, 2019,4:29.


1. AGAMI R.A., 2013 – Salicylic acid mitigates the adverse effect of water stress on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). – Journal of applied sciences research, 9(11): 5701-5711.
2. BALL S., QIAN Y.L., STUSHNOFF C., 2002 – Soluble carbohydrates in two buffalograss cultivars with contrasting freezing tolerance. – J. Amer. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 127(1): 45-49.
3. BARMAN K., ASREY R., 2014 – Salicylic acid pre-treatment alleviates chilling injury, preserves bioactive compounds and enhances shelf life of mango fruit during cold storage. – journal of scientific and industrial research, 73: 713-718.
4. BARRS H.D., WEATHERLEY P.E., 1962 – A re-examination of the relative turgidity techniques for estimating water deficits in leaves. – Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 15(3): 413-428.
5. BATES L.S.R.D., WALDREN R.P., TEARE I.D., 1973 – Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. – Plant and Soil, 39:205-207.
6. BORSANI O., VALPUESTA V., BOTELLA M.A., 2001 – Evidence for a role of salicylic acid in the oxidative damage generated by NaCl and osmotic stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. – Plant Physiol, 126(3): 1024-1030.
7. CHEN Z., MALAMY J., HENNING J., CONRATH U., SANCHES-CASAS P., SILVA H., RICIGLIANO J., KLESSIG D.K., 1995 – Induction, modification, and transduction of the salicylic acid signal in plant defense responses. – Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 92(10): 4134-4137.
8. CZYGAN F.C., HILLER K., 2002 -Petroselini radix, pp. 445-447. – In: WICHTL M (ed.), teedrogen und Phytopharmaka. Ein Handbuch für die Praxis auf wissenschaftlicher Grundlage. – 4 ed. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft. Stuttgart.
9. DELAVARI P.M., BAGHIZADEH A., ENTESHARI S.H., KALANTARI KH.M., YAZDANPANAH A., MOUSAVI E.A., 2010 – The effects of salicylic acid on some of biochemical and morphological characteristic of Ocimum basilicucm under salinity stress. – Australian journal of basic and applied sciences, 4(10): 4832 – 4845.
10. El TAYEB M.A., AHMED N.L., 2010 – Response of wheat cultivars to drought and salicylic acid. – Am-Euras. J. Agron.,
11. 3(1): 01-07.
12. GOLESTANI M.A., DOLATKHAHI A., KAZEMI F., 2013 – Effect of planting dates on flowering periods of Calendula officinalis, Bellis perennis and Viola sp. – Advanced Crop Science, 3(8): 563-567.
13. HISCOX J.D., ISRAELSTAM G.F., 1979 – A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. – Canadian journal of botany, 57(12): 1332-1334.
14. IRAN METEOROLOGY BUREAU., 2018 – Reporting monthly figures province. [accessed, August 2018].
15. Jungklang J., Saengnil K., Uthaibutra J., 2015 – Effects of water-deficit stress and paclobutrazol on growth, relative water content, electrolyte leakage, proline content and some antioxidant changes in Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. cv. Chiang Mai Pink. – Saudi Journal of biological sciences, 24(7): 1-8.
16. KENJI M., YASUOMI T., 2014 – Regulation of water, salinity and cold stresse responses by salicylic acid. – Front. Plant. sci., 5: 1-12.
17. KLESSIG D.F., MALAMY J., 1994 – The salicylic acid signal in plants. – Plant molecular biology. 26(5): 1439-1458.
18. KRAMER P.J., 1980 – Drought, stress, and the origin of the adaptation, pp. 7-20. – In: TURNER N.C., KRAMER P.J (eds.), Adaptation of plants to water and high temperature stress. Jhon wiley and sons. New York. USA.
19. LOPEZ-DELGADO H., DAT J.F., FOYER C.H., SCOTT I.M., 1998 – Induction of thermotolerance in potato microplants by acetylsalicylic acid and H2O2. – J. Exp. Bot., 49(321): 713-720.
20. LUTTS S., KINET J.M., BOUHARMONT J., 1996 – NaCl-induced senescence in leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity resistance. – J. Ann. Bot., 78: 389-398.
21. MANIVANNAN P., JALEEL C.A., SANKAR B., KISHOREKUMAR A., SOMASUNDARAM R., LAKSHMANAN G.M.A., PANNEERSELVAM R., 2007 – Growth biochemical modifications and proline metabolism in Helianthus annuus L. as induced by drought stress. – Colloids and Surfaces. B: Biointerfaces, 59(2): 141-149.
22. PALIYATH G., MURR D.P., 2008 – Biochemistry of fruits, pp. 19-50. – In: PALIYATH G., MURR D.P., HANDA A.K., LURIE S. (eds.), Postharvest biology and technology of fruits , vegetables and flowers. John Wiley and sons. New York, pp. 482.
23. PARSONS L.R., 1982 – Plant responses to water stress, pp. 175-192. – In: CHRISTIANSEN M.N., LEWIS C.F (eds.), Breeding plants for less favorable environments. John Wiley and sons. New York.
24. PATEL M.S., GOLAKIYA B.A., 1988 – Effect of water stress on yield attributes and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). – Indian j. Agric. Sci., 58: 701-703.
25. PATEL P.K., HEMANTARANJAN A., SARMA B.K., SINGH R., 2011 – Growth and antioxidant system under drought stress in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as sustained by salicylic acid. – Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 7(4): 130-144.
26. QINGHUA S., ZHIYI B., ZHUJUN Z., QUANSHENG Y., QIONGQIU Q., 2006 – Effects of different treatments of salicylic acid on heat tolerance, Chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity in seedlings of Cucumis sativa L. – Plant growth regulation, 48(2): 127-135.
27. RASKIN I., 1992 – Salicylate a new plant hormone. – Plant physiol., 99(3): 799-803.
28. RASKIN I., SKUBATS H., TANG W., MEEUSE B.J.D., 1990 – Salicylic acid levels in thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants. – Ann. Bot., 66: 369-373.
29. REDDY P.S., VEERANJANEYULU K., 1991 – Proline metabolism in senescing leaves of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam.). – J. Plant physiol., 137(3): 381-383.
30. Rhizopoulou S., Diamantoglou S., Passiakou L., 1990 – Free proline accumulation in leaves, stems and roots of four Mediterranean native phrygana species. – acta oecologica, 11(4): 585-593.
31. Riaz A., Younis A., TAJ A.R., Karim A., Tariq U., Munir S., Riaz S., 2013 – Effect of drought stress on growth and flowering of marigold ( Tagetes erecta L.). – Pak. J. Bot., 45: 123-131.
32. RUKER K.S., Kevin C.K., HOLBROOK C.C., HOOK J.E., 1995 – Identification of peanut genotypes with improved drought avoidance traits. – Peanut Science, 22(1): 14-18.
33. SANTORO M.M., LIU Y., KHAN S.M., HOU L.X., BOLEN D.W., 1992 – Increased thermal stability of proteins in the presence of naturally occurring osmolytes. – Biochemistry, 31(23): 5278-5283.
34. SCHOFIELD A., RUPASINGHE H.P.V., PALIYATH G., 2008 – Isoprenoid biosynthesis in fruits and vegetables, pp. 282-300. – In: PALIYATH G., MURR D.P., HANDA A.K., LURIE S (eds.), Postharvest biology and technology of fruits , vegetables and flowers. John Wiley and sons. New York, pp. 482.
35. SHAKIROVA F.M., 2007 – Role of hormonal system in the manifestation of growth promoting and antistress action of salicylic acid, pp. 69-89. – In: HAYAT S., AHMAD A (eds.), Salicylic acid: A plant hormone. Springer. Netherlands, pp. 401.
36. SHETTY K., Wahlqvist M.L., 2004 – A model for the role of proline – linked pentose – phosphate pathway in phenolic phytochemical biosynthesis and mechanism of action for human health and environmental applications. – Asia pacific J. Clin. Nutr., 13: 1 -24.
37. SIEFERMANN-HARMS D., 1987 – The light harvesting and protective functions of carotenoids in photosynthetic membranes. – Physiologia plantarum, 69(3): 561-568.
38. SMIRNOFF N., CUMBES Q.J., 1989 – Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of compatible solutes. Phytochemistry, 28: 1057 -1060.
39. TUBBY K.V., WEBBER J.F., 2010 – Pests and diseases threatening urban trees under a changing climate, Forestry, 83(4): 451-459.
40. Yamada M., Morishita H., Urano K., Shiozaki N., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K., Shinozaki K., Yoshiba Y ., 2005 – Effects of free proline accumulation in petunias under drought stress. – J. Exp. Bot., 56(417): 1975-1981.
41. YAZDIZADEH L., MIRZAKHANI A., 2012 – Study effect of Thyme oil, Salicylic acid, Aloe vera gel and some chemical substances on increasing vase life of cut Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Liberty. – International journal of Agronomy and plant production, 3: 666-674.
42. YOUNG A.J., 1991 – The photoprotective role of carotenoids in higher plants. – Physiologia Plantarum, 83(4): 702-708.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details).

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.