Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research
Beef Production and Marketing in Nigeria: Entrepreneurship in Animal Agriculture
1Kubkomawa, H. I., 1Adamu, S. M., 2Achonwa, C.C. and 3Okoli, I.C.
1. Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal Polytechnic, PMB 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria 2. Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
The objective of the study is to survey the current beef production systems and marketing in Nigeria as a means of encouraging entrepreneurship in animal agriculture. One hundred (100) beef producers and marketers were randomly selected for interviews and discussion on beef production and marketing dynamics. Data generated were subjected to descriptive statistics to explain the trend of beef production and marketing in the study area. Beef are produced in the area majorly by pastoralism (75%), home fattening (15%) and government institutions (10%). Market prices of beef cattle in Mubi are determined by visual evaluation which incorporates element of indicators such as breed, age, sex, colour, body condition score, temperament, anus stain and the purpose of buying the animals. Inadequate market information, manipulative ways of market intermediaries, high cost of transportation, lack of infrastructure and credit facilities, fluctuation in demand and supply, cattle rustling and buying of stolen animals, inadequate security within the market place and on the roads and payment of heavy taxes and clearing of checkpoints on the roads formed constraints faced by the producers and marketers. Therefore, beef cattle production and marketing in the study area and Nigeria, in general, are predominantly controlled by intermediaries who benefit more, while primary producers and the end consumers do not get the desired value for their efforts. It is recommended that, since beef cattle production and marketing is not isolated from national and international political and socio-economic policies, the interactions between the producers, marketers and broader sectors should be taken into account in order to generate holistic and reliable data that would inform effective interventions.
Keywords: Beef Production Systems, Entrepreneurship, Animal Agriculture, Nigeria
How to cite this article:
Kubkomawa, H. I., Adamu, S. M., Achonwa, C.C. and Okoli, I.C.. Beef Production and Marketing in Nigeria: Entrepreneurship in Animal Agriculture. American Journal of Agricultural Research, 2019,4:34
1. Abubakar, I. A., & Garba, H. S. (2004). A Study of Traditional Methods for Control of Ticks in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production, 29, 87-88.
2. ADADP. (1986). Adamawa Agricultural Development Programme. Method of Vegetable Gardening, pp. 3- 4.
3. Adebayo, A. A. (1999). Climate, Sunshine, Temperature, Relative humidity and Rainfall. Journal of Applied Sciences and Management,1, 69 -72.
4. Adebayo, A. A., & Tukur, A. L. (1991). Adamawa State In maps. Paraclete Publishing company Yola, Adamawa State, Nigria, pp. 35 – 40.
5. Adebayo, A. A., & Tukur, A. L. (1997). Adamawa state in maps. Paraclete Publishing company Yola, Adamawa State, Nigria, pp. 8 – 45.
6. Adegeye, A. J. (1995). Statistical Analysis of Demand for Beef in the Western State of Nigeria. Bulletin of Rural Economics and Development, 6 (1), 70-75.
7. Ajiya, K. (1998). Student Final Year Project. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension. Federal University of Technology Yola. Unpublished.
8. Akinrinola, O. O., & Mafimisebi, T. E. (2010). Contributions of Informal Savings and Credit Institutions to Rural Development: Evidence from Nigeria. Journal of Rural Co-operation, 38 (2), 187-202.
9. Akinwumi, J. A. (1986). The Nigerian Livestock Industry (Problems and Prospects). A Proceeding of Workshop on the Proposed Sub-Livestock Sector Review Held in Jos, 26th – 27th February, 1986.
10. Alphonsus, C., Akpa, G. N., Barje, P. P., Finangwai, H. I., & Adamu, B. D. (2012). Comparative evaluation of linear udder and body conformation traits of bunaji and friesian x bunaji cows. World Journal of Life Science and Medical Research, 2 (4),134 – 140.
11. Areola, O. O. (1983). Soil and vegetational resources: In J. S. Ogunn, O. O. Areola and M. Filani (Ed). Geography of Nigerian development. Heinemann Ibadan, p. 342.
12. ASMLS (2010a). Map of Nigeria showing all States. Adamawa State Ministry of Land and Survey, Yola, Nigeria.
13. ASMLS (2010b). Map of Adamawa State of Nigeria showing all Local Government Areas. Adamawa State Ministry of Land and Survey, Yola, Nigeria.
14. Auwal, A. (2005). Political Decisions in Nigerian Agricultural Industry. Journal of Applied Sciences and Management, 2, 186.
15. CBN (1999). Annual Report of Central Bank of Nigeria, 10, 41.
16. Clay, P. M., Jason, E. S., & Ron, K. (2002). Managing and feeding beef cows using body condition scores. New Mexico State University and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperation, Washington.
17. Fadare, A. O., Peters, S. O., Adeleke, M. A., & Ozoje, M. O. (2012). Physiological and haematological indices suggest superior heat tolerance of white-coloured West African Dwarf sheep in the hot humid tropics. Trop Anim Health Prod., Springer Science and Business Media B.V., pp. 1 – 9.
18. FAO (1990). Production Year Book. Rome, Italy, 46, 153.
19. FAO (2006). Trypanotolerant Cattle and Livestock Development in West and Central Africa. Animal Production Health Paper, 2, 213-230.
20. FAO (2015). World Cattle Inventory: Ranking of countries, Rome, Italy.
21. Fenn, M. G. (1977). Marketing Livestock and Meat, FAO. Animal Production and Health Series No.1. 2nd Edition. FAO: Rome, Italy.
22. Filani, M. O. (2006). Transport Market Study- The Bodija Cattle Market in Ibadan. Department of Geography University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
23. Ikpi, A. E. (1990). Livestock Marketing and Consumption in Nigeria from 1970-1989. An Unpublished Research in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, pp.36-39.
24. INEC (1996). Independent National Electoral Commission. Nigerian Electoral Body Responsible for Organization and Conducting General Elections.
25. Iro, I. S. (1994). The Fulani herding system. African Development Foundation, Washington.
26. Joe, C. P. (2010). Using body condition scores in beef cattle. TSCRA School for Successful Ranching. Livestock Specialist Texas Agrilife Extension.
27. Kefyalew, A. & Addis, G. (2015). Beef cattle marketing and illegal trading in North Western Amhara, Ethiopia. dynamic journal of animal science and technology, 1(2), 43-48.
28. Kohls, R. L., & Uhl, J. N. (1985). Marketing of Agricultural Products. Sixth Edition, McMillan Publishers Company, New York, pp. 5 – 8.
29. Kohls, R. L., & Uhl, J. N. (2002). Marketing of agricultural products, 9th Ed, Prentice-Hall McMillan Publishers Company, New York.
30. Kubkomawa, H. I., Helen, U. O., Timon, F., Kabir, A. M., & Neils, S. J. (2011). The use of camels, donkeys and oxen for post emergence weeding of farm lands in North-Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Social Sciences, 7(4), 136 – 138.
31. Mafimisebi, T. E. (2011). Spatial Price Equilibrium and Fish Market Integration in Nigeria: Pricing Contacts of Spatially Separated Markets. LAP Lambert Publishing Company, Germany. pp. 157.
32. Mafimisebi, T. E. (2012). Spatial Equilibrium, Market Integration and Price Exogeneity in Dry Fish Marketing in Nigeria: A Vector Auto-regressive (VAR) Approach. Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 17 (33), 31-37.
33. Mafimisebi, T. E., & Okunmadewa, F. Y. (2006). Are Middlemen Really Exploitative? Empirical Evidence from the Sun-dried Fish Market in Southwest, Nigeria. In: Re-building Fisheries in an Uncertain Environment, CD-ROM of the 13th Biennial Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade. P. I2.
34. Mafimisebi, T. E., Bobola, O. M., & Mafimisebi, O. E. (2013). Fundamentals of Cattle Marketing in Southwest, Nigeria: Analyzing Market Intermediaries, Price Formation and Yield Performance. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference of the African Association of Agricultural Economists, held in Hammamet, Tunisia from September 22-25, 2013.
35. Mafimisebi, T. E., Oguntade, A. E., Fajeminsin, N. A., & Ayelari P. O. (2012). Local Knowledge and Socio Economic Determinants of Traditional Medicines’ Utilization in Livestock Health Managements in South West Nigeria. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethno medicine, January 2012
36. Mansir, M. (2006). Livestock Marketing and Transportation in Nigeria.
37. McManus, C., Prescott, E., Paludo, G. R., Bianchini, E., Louvandini, H., & Mariante, A. S. (2009). Heat tolerance in naturalized Brazilian cattle breeds. Livestock Science, 120, 256 – 264.
38. Meghen, C., MacHugh, D. E., Sauveroche, B., Kana, G., & Bradley, D. G. (1999). Characterization of the Kuri Cattle of Lake Chad using Molecular Genetic Techniques. In R. M. Blench and K.C. MacDonald (Ed.) The origin and development of African livestock. University College Press, London, pp. 28 – 86.
39. Mohammed, K. (1999). Historical background. In A. A. Adebayo and A. L. Tukur (Ed) Adamawa state in maps. Paraclete Publishers, Yola.
40. Moutari, M. (2008). Securing pastoralism in East and West Africa: Protecting and promoting livestock mobility. Niger/Nigeria Desk Review. IRAM: Institut de researches et d’ applications des methodes de development.
41. Mubi, A. A., Michika, S. A., & Midau, A. (2012). Cattle marketing in Mubi Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Agric. Biol. Journal of North America, 4(3), 199 – 204.
42. NLPD (1992). Nigerian National Livestock Project Division. Survey in Kaduna, Nigeria, 58, 175 – 177.
43. NPC (1991). National Population Commission. Nigerian Agency Responsible for Conducting Census.
44. Okunmadewa, F. Y. (1999). Livestock Industry as a Tool for Poverty Alleviation. Tropical Journal of Animal Science, 2(2), 21-30.
45. Olayemi, J. K. (1973). Rice Marketing and Prices: A case Study of Kwara State, Nigeria. Bulletin of Rural Economics and Sociology, 8 (2), 211-242.
46. Olayemi, J. K. (1974). Scope for the Development of the Food Marketing System in Ibadan, Nigeria. FAO Report, pp.1-29.
47. Omoruyi, S. A., Orhue, U., Akerobo, A. A., & Aghimien, C. I. (2000). Prescribed Agricultural Science for Secondary Schools; Benin City, Idodo Umeh Publishers Ltd. Pp. 443- 445.
48. Seperich, G. J., Woolverton, M. W., & Beirlein, J. G. (2002). Introduction to Agribusiness Marketing, Prentice Hall, Pearson Education Company, Upper River.
49. Swinton, S. (1987). Drought survival tactics of subsistence farmers in Niger. Human Ecology, 1(2), 108 – 122.
50. Tewe, O. O. (1997). Sustainability and Development: Paradigms from Nigeria’s Livestock Industry. Inaugural lecture series, University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan.
51. Tibi, K. N., & Aphunu, A. (2010). Analysis of Cattle Market in Delta State: The Supply Determinants. African Journal of General Agriculture, 6 (4), 199-203.
52. Tukur, H. M., & Maigandi, S. A. (1999). Studies on Animal Traction in Northeastern Nigeria: Characterization and Management of Animals used For Draught. Tropical Journal of Animal Science, 1(1), 10-27.
53. Umar, A. S. (2005). Financial Analysis of Small-scale Beef Fattening Enterprise in Bama Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, pp 78.
54. Umar, A. S., Alamu, J. F., & Adeniyi, O. B. (2008). Economic Analysis of Small-scale Cow Fattening Enterprise in Bama Local Government of Borno State, Nigeria.
55. Wakili, B. A. (1986). Connection and Profit Margin of Cattle marketing in Maiduguri. Student Final Year Project. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension. University of Maiduguri, unpublished.