Review Article of American Journal of Public administration
Ethics and Professionalism: Pharmacy Profession
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
Pharmacy is regarded as one of the most trusted professions in the world. Doctors are very important part of our society. They diagnose the disease and prescribe the medicines for the treatment of the diseases. Like Doctors, Pharmacist is also very important personality because he formulates the medicines, which are prescribed by doctors. So, we can say that without pharmacist, doctors cannot improve the public health and cannot cure the disease. Pharmacist is the backbone of medical profession. Without his expertise, doctors cannot do anything. They cannot fully cure the ill person. Pharmacist not only formulate the medicine, which are prescribed by physician, he also assesses the suitability of the medication for particular patient considering their medical history as well as the pharmacist tells us about the side effects of drug and interaction with other drugs and give clear understanding of the medication.
Purpose of the study: Discussion and projection about pharmacy profession and its characteristics, professional behavior and ethical aspects. The pharmacists have a vital role to play healthcare associate as well as provider. Findings: Pharmacists are yet to get their status as a healthcare provider. Materials and Methods: Research conducted a comprehensive year-round literature search, which included books, technical newsletters, newspapers, journals, and many other sources. Medicine and technical experts, pharma company executives and representatives were interviewed. Projections were based on all ethical and professional aspects pharmacists need to cover. Research limitations: Pharmacists are not the sole healthcare providers. The article comprises only ethical issues of pharmacists in healthcare profession. Practical Implication: The soul of this article was to detail pharmacy profession and ethics. Along with students, researchers and professionals of different background and disciplines, eg. Pharmacists, marketers, doctors, nurses, hospital authorities, public representatives, policy makers and regulatory authorities have to acquire much from this article. Social Implication: Pharmacists have several scopes to work in healthcare system in a country like Bangladesh as there is a scarcity of resources, fewer access to general people for adequate and better treatment. The article should contribute an integrated discussion about the importance of pharmacy professionals at different levels of healthcare settings.
Keywords: ADR; Moral issue vs ethical issue; Code of ethics; Clinical Governance; Consumerism vs Paternalism; Social Sanction
How to cite this article:
AK MOHIUDDIN. Ethics and Professionalism: Pharmacy Profession. American Journal of Public administration, 2019,1:3.
1.APhA. Oath of a Pharmacist. URL: https://www.pharmacist.com/oath-pharmacist
2.APhA. (1995). Code of ethics for pharmacists. American Pharmaceutical Association. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 52, 2131.
3.David BT, Paul B. Ethics and Professionalism Allen, Loyd v V.Jr, “Reming-tons the Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Vol 1 / 2, 22nd edition, Pharma-ceutical Press Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ©2006.
4.MONSTAR. Pharmacist Job Description. URL: https://hiring.monster.com/hr/hr-best-practices/recruiting-hiring-advice/job-descriptions/pharmacist-job-description.aspx
5.Siôn P. The 16 Key Skills Needed to be a Pharmacist PROFESSIONAL SKILLS / DEC. 01, 2017
6.Harding G, Taylor K. Pharmacy’s strength lies in its blend of clinical, scien-tific and social skills. Pharm J. 2004;273(7310):146.
7.KNMP. Charter Professionalism Of The Pharmacist. Foundation For Acting Professionally And Ethically. ©2018 KNMP
8.Dingwall R, Wilson E. Is pharmacy really an incomplete profession? Per-spect Soc Problems. 1995;7:111–28.
9.Freidson E. Professionalism: The Third Logic. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 2001.
10.Polanyi M. The Tacit Dimension. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 2009.
11.Waterfield J. Is Pharmacy a Knowledge-Based Profession? Am J Pharm Educ. 2010 Apr 12; 74(3): 50. PMID: 20498743
12.Helen M, Kate W. Chapter 2. Prescribing. Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeu-tics
6th Edition Editors: Cate Whittlesea Karen Hodson. eBook ISBN: 9780702070105
eBook ISBN: 9780702070099 Imprint: Elsevier Published Date: 7th August 2018
13.Loyd V, Allen JR. Chapter 1. Guidelines for Compounding Practices. The Art, Science, and Technology of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Third Edi-tion. Reviewed by Jane E. Krause. 2008. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association. Am J Pharm Educ. 2009 May 27; 73(3): 39. ISBN 987-1-58212-110-9. PMCID: PMC2703278
14.Web WHO. Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal A World Health Organization resource. The Role of the Pharmacist in the Health-Care System – Preparing the Future Pharmacist: Curricular Devel-opment, Report of a Third WHO Consultative Group on the Role of the Pharmacist Vancouver, Canada, 27-29 August 1997 (1997; 49 pages).
15.Dana PH. Professional Attitudes and Behaviors: The “A’s and B’s” of
Professionalism. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education Vol. 64, Winter 2000 Pages 455-464
16.Wasson K, Anderson E. What Ethical Issues Really Arise in Practice at an Academic Medical Center? A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Clini-cal Ethics Consultations from 2008 to 2013. HEC Forum. 2016 Sep;28(3):217-28. doi: 10.1007/s10730-015-9293-5. PMID: 26423767 DOI: 10.1007/s10730-015-9293-5
17.Shaghayegh V,1 Leila H. Patient Involvement in Health Care Decision Making: A Review. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014 Jan; 16(1): e12454. doi: [10.5812/ircmj.12454] PMID: 24719703
18.Montague T. Patient-provider partnerships in healthcare: enhancing knowledge translation and improving outcomes. Healthc Pap. 2006;7(2):53-61; discussion 68-75. PMID: 17167320
19.McCarthy RL. Health Care Ethics. (Case Study)
20.Buchanan DR and Miller FG. J Med Ethics. 2006 Dec; 32(12): 729–733.
doi: [10.1136/jme.2006.015891] PMID: 17145915
21.Web WHO. Patients’ rights. Genomic resource centre. URL: https://www.who.int/genomics/public/patientrights/en/
22.Yolanda S. Ethics in Pharmacy. Reviewed by Damien Jonas Wilson. News Medical Life Sciences. URL: https://www.news-medical.net/health/Ethics-in-Pharmacy.aspx
23.Salari P, Namazi H and others. Code of ethics for the national pharmaceu-tical system: Codifying and compilation. J Res Med Sci. 2013 May; 18(5): 442–448.
24.Chapter 5. Communicating Risk and Uncertainty in the Clinical Setting. Relevance of Health Literacy to Precision Medicine: Proceedings of a Workshop. Roundtable on Health Literacy; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Health and Medicine Division; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington (DC): National Acad-emies Press (US); 2016 Apr 11.
25.Good Medical Practice: A Code Of Conduct For Doctors In Australia Code of conduct | Pharmacy Board of Australia | March 2014
26.Schröder-Bäck P, Duncan P and others. Teaching seven principles for public health ethics: towards a curriculum for a short course on ethics in public health programmes. BMC Med Ethics. 2014; 15: 73. doi: [10.1186/1472-6939-15-73]
27.Altilio JV. The pharmacist’s obligations to patients: dependent or independ-ent of the physician’s obligations? J Law Med Ethics. 2009 Sum-mer;37(2):358-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-720X.2009.00379.x. PMID: 19493080
28.Wolff J. Models of distributive justice. Novartis Found Symp. 2007;278:165-70; discussion 170-80, 216-21. PMID: 17214316
29.Hadler RA, Rosa WE. Distributive Justice: An Ethical Priority in Global Pal-liative Care. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2018 Apr;55(4):1237-1240. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2017.12.483 PMID: 29288878
30.Shelton RL. Human rights and distributive justice in health care delivery. J Med Ethics. 1978 Dec; 4(4): 165–171. PMID: 739512
31.Boughen M, Sutton J and others. Defining the Role of the Pharmacy Tech-nician and Identifying Their Future Role in Medicines Optimisation. Phar-macy (Basel). 2017 Sep; 5(3): 40. doi: [10.3390/pharmacy5030040] PMID: 28970452
32.Code of Conduct for Registered Practitioners URL: apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s17804en/s17804en.pdf
33.Lois Snyder Sulmasy, JD, and Paul S. Mueller, Ethics and the Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide: An American College of Physicians Position Paper Ann Intern Med. 2017;167:576-578. doi:10.7326/M17-0938 An-nals.org
34.Pereira J. Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safe-guards and controls. Curr Oncol. 2011 Apr; 18(2): e38–e45. PMID: 21505588
35.Math SB, Chaturvedi SK. Euthanasia: Right to life vs right to die. Indian J Med Res. 2012 Dec; 136(6): 899–902. PMID: 23391785
36.Goligher EC, Ely EW. Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in the Intensive Care Unit: A Dialogue on Core Ethical Issues. Crit Care Med. 2017 Feb; 45(2): 149–155. doi: [10.1097/CCM.0000000000001818] PMID: 28098622
37.Klitzman R. How IRB Leaders View and Approach Challenges Raised by Industry-Funded Research. IRB. 2013 May-Jun; 35(3): 9–17. PMID: 23822047
38.Parker GE. A Framework for Navigating Institutional Review Board (IRB) Oversight in the Complicated Zone of Research. Cureus. 2016 Oct; 8(10): e844.
doi: [10.7759/cureus.844] PMID: 27909632
39.Ravindra BG. Institutional review boards: Challenges and opportunities. Perspect Clin Res. 2014 Apr-Jun; 5(2): 60–65. doi: [10.4103/2229-3485.128020] PMID: 24741481
40.Christine G. Institutional Review Boards Purpose and Challenges. Chest. 2015 Nov; 148(5): 1148–1155. doi: [10.1378/chest.15-0706] PMID: 26042632
41.Physicians Committee Human Experimentation: An Introduction to the Eth-ical Issues 2016 URL: https://www.pcrm.org/research/healthcare-professionals/research-compendium/human-experimentation-an-introduction-to-the
42.Kimberly O, Sabrina H, Mousa SA. Preferred drug lists: Potential impact on healthcare economics. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008 Apr; 4(2): 403–413.
43.Huskamp HA, Nancy LK. The New Medicare Drug Benefit: Formularies and Their Potential Effects on Access to Medications. J Gen Intern Med. 2005 Jul; 20(7): 662–665. doi: [10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.0110.x] PMID: 16050866
44.Fox PD. Prescription Drug Benefits: Cost Management Issues for Medicare. Health Care Financ Rev. 2003 Winter; 25(2): 7–21. PMID: 15124374
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.