Research article of American Journal of Scientific Research and Essays
Research status and development direction of controlling factors of graphite mineralization in coal measures
Tian Yuan1, Li Xiaobo2, Gong Liubing1, Li Haihua1, Yang Rui1, Xu Bohui3*
1School of Earth Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, Hebei 056038, China. 2Shandong No.5 Geo-mineral Prospecting Institute, Tai’an, Shandong 271000, China. 3male, associate professor, master’s tutor, mainly engaged in research on the processing and utilization of inorganic non-metallic minerals.
Coal-measure graphite mineralization control is affected by many factors. In order to explore the ore-forming control factors and influence mechanism, the paper comprehensively analyzes the influence and mechanism of each factor from five aspects of coal rock composition, coal grade, temperature, pressure and mineralizer, combined with geological examples. The results show that in the process of graphite mineralization in coal measures, the components of coal and rock have the ability of graphitization, but the higher the degree of metamorphism of coal as carbon source, the higher the degree of graphitization of products, the higher the ore-forming temperature, and the higher the degree of graphitization. The development of tectonic movement promotes the graphitization, but the degree of graphitization is different and complicated due to the stress dissipation. Different minerals in coal have different effects on graphite mineralization in coal measures, and its mechanism needs to be further explored. Finally, it is pointed out that the research direction of coal series graphite lies in the different graphitization mechanism of the same rank coal and the different influence mechanism of different minerals in coal.
Fund Project: Study on the structural order degree of cryptocrystalline graphite and its ore-forming controlling factors in coal measures of Hebei natural fund (D2019402055).
Keywords: Coal series graphite; Metallogenic mechanism; Graphitization
How to cite this article:
Tian Yuan, Li Xiaobo, Gong Libing, Li Haihua, Yang Rui, Xu Bohui. Research status and development direction of controlling factors of graphite mineralization in coal measures. American Journal of Scientific Research and Essays, 2021; 6:1. DOI:10.28933/ajsre-2021-04-1805
 Worsley M A, Pauzauskie P J, Olson T Y, et al.Synthesis of graphene aerogel with high elec-trical conductivity[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2010, 132(40): 14067-14069.
 Li X, Zhao T, Wang K, et al. Directly drawing self-assembled, porous, and monolithic graphe-ne fiber from chemical vapor deposition grown graphene film and its electrochemical proper-ties[J]. Langmuir, 2011, 27(19): 12164-12171.
 Behabtu N, Lomeda J R, Green M J, et al. Spontaneous high-concentration dispersions and liquid crystals of graphene[J]. Nature nano-technology, 2010, 5(6): 406.
 Li D, Müller M B, Gilje S, et al. Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets [J]. Nature nanotechnology, 2008, 3(2): 101.
 Uri A, Grover S, Cao Y, et al. Mapping the twist-angle disorder and Landau levels in magic-angle graphene[J]. Nature, 2020, 581 (7806): 47-52.
 Bi H, Xie X, Yin K, et al. Spongy graphene as a highly efficient and recyclable sorbent for oils a-nd organic solvents[J]. Advanced Functional Materials, 2012, 22(21): 4421-4425.
 Cohen-Tanugi D, Grossman J C. Waterdesalination across nanoporous graphene[J]. Nano letters, 2012, 12(7): 3602-3608.
 Wang Y, Wang L, Yang T, et al. Wearable and highly sensitive graphene strain sensors for human motion monitoring[J]. Advanced Functio-nal Materials, 2014, 24(29): 4666-4670.
 Ministry of natural resources. National mineral resources reserve bulletin (2018) [R]. Beijing: Ministry of natural resources, 2019:147 – 148
 Li Kuo.Investigation on the structural ordering of natural coaly graphite from Xinhua,Hunan Provience,China.[D].China university of mining & technology-Beijing.2019
 Dong Yeji, Cao Daiyong,Wang Lu，et al. Indica-tors for partitioning graphite and anthracite in coal measures during geological exploration phase[J]. ,2018,46(01):8-12.Coal Geology & Exploration
 Kwiecińska B, Petersen H I. Graphite, semi-graphite, natural coke, and natural char classi-fication—ICCP system[J]. International Journal of Coal Geology, 2004, 57(2): 99-116.
 Cao Daiyong, Zhang He,Dong Yeji,et al. Re-search status and key orientation of coal-based graphite mineral geology[J].Earth Sciene Fron-tiers, 2017,24(5):317-327.
 Wang Lu，Dong Yeji，Zhang He，et al． Factors affecting graphitization of coal and the experi-mental validation［J］. Journal of Mining Science and Tech- nology，2018，3(1):9 － 19. DOI:10. 19606 /j. cnki. jmst. 2018. 01. 002
 Gered R， Wolfgang L， Evelin F. On the dis-crimination of semi-graphite and graphite by Raman spectroscopy[J]. International Journal of Coal Geology，2016(159): 48-56
 LI Yang，Wang Lu，Cao Daiyong，et al. The discovery and geological significance of coal-formed graphite in Chongyi coal mine in Jiangxi Province[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration，2019，47(5)：79–85
 Franklin R.E Crystallite growth in graphitizing and nongraphitizing carbons [J].Proceedings of the Royal Society A Mathematical Physical & Engineering Sciences,1951,209(1097):196-218）
 Bonnamy S, Oberlin A. Heat-treatment of two heavy petroleum products containing vanadium and nickel[J]. Carbon, 1982, 20(6): 499-504.
 Oberlin A, Terriere G. Graphitization studies of anthracites by high resolution electron micro-scopy[J]. Carbon, 1975, 13(5): 367-376.
 Oberlin A, Oberlin M. Graphitizability of carbonaceous materials as studied by TEM and X‐ray diffraction[J]. Journal of Microscopy, 1983, 132(3): 353-363.
 Qin Yong,Zhang Yousheng, Liu huanjie. Evolu-tion track of coarse grain reflectivity of high coal grade coal[J].Coal Geology & Exploration ， 1994(05):13-18
 Zhang Xiaoxu. Study on Catalytic graphitiza-tion of Shenfu coal and macerals[D],Xi`an University of Science and Technology,2014.
 Bustin R M , Ross J V , Rouzaud J N . Mechanisms of graphite formation from kerogen:experimental evidence[J]. 1995, 28(1):1-36.
 Wilks K R, Mastalerz M, Ross J V, et al. Theeffect of experimental deformation on the graphitization of Pennsylvania anthracite[J]. International journal of coal geology, 1993, 24(1-4): 347-369.
 González D, Montes-Morán M A, Garcia A B. Graphite materials prepared from an anthracite: a structural characterization[J]. Energy & fuels, 2003, 17(5): 1324-1329.
 Pusz S, Duber S, Kwiecińska B K. The study of textural and structural transformations of carbonized anthracites[J]. Fuel processing technology, 2002, 77: 173-180.
 Qiu Dian. Research on the graphitization process of coal and the migration rule of coal-derived minerals[D].China university of mining&technology,2019.
 Li W, Zhu Y. Structural characteristics of coal vitrinite during pyrolysis[J]. Energy & fuels, 2014, 28(6): 3645-3654.
 Cao Daiyong, Wang Lu, Liu Zhifei, et al.The research status and prospect of coal-based graphite in China[J/OL].Coal Geology & Explo-ration,2020,48(01):1-11.
 Petrakakis K. Metamorphism of high-grade gneisses from the Moldanubian zone, Austria, with particular reference to the garnets[J]. Metamorph Geol, 1986, 4: 323-344.
 Petrakakis K. Evolution of Moldanubian rocks in Austria: review and synthesis [J]. Metamorph Geol, 1997, 15:203-222.
 Echtler H P, Ivanov K S, Ronkin YL, et al. The tectono-metamorphic evolution of gneiss com-plexes in the Middle Urals, Russia: A re-appraisal[J]. Tectonophysics, 1997, 276: 229-251.
 Jöns N , Schenk V. The ultrahigh temperature granulites of southern Madagascar in a polymetamorphic context: Implications for the amalgamation of the Gondwana supercontinent [J]. Eur J Mineral, 2011, 23: 127-156.
 Huang Bojun.Graphitization of carbonaceous materials metamorphic rocks[J].Acta Mineralo gica Sinica,1986,6(4):350-353.
 Cheng Siyu, Chuan Xiuyun, Yang Yang, et al.
Mineralogical Characteristics of Aphanitic Cry-ptocrystalline in Yantongshan and Its Signifi-cance for Origin[J/OL].Acta Scientiarum Natu-ralium Universitatis Pekinensis:1-13.
 Tadao Ishikawa, Shizawa Shiro, Huang Cheng-yuan.Effects of heating rate, heating time, repressurization of semi-finished products and increasing forming pressure on graphitization [J].Foreign Light Metals,1965(05):31-35.
 Zhang Deping, Yin Xintang. Research on gra-phitization of metallurgical Coke [J]. Carbon, 1982(04):7-13.
  Bustin R M, Rouzaud J N, Ross J V. Natural graphitization of anthracite: experimental considerations[J]. Carbon, 1995, 33(5): 679-691
 Liu Jian. Moving toward the application and industrialization of graphene:processes of gra-phite formation and graphitic crystal chemi-stry[D]. China University of Geosciences (Bei-jing), 2017.
 Hou Dandan. nfluence of order degree of coal-based graphite on structure change og graphene(Beijing),2019.
 Cui Xianjian, Liu Qinfu, Li Kuo,et al. Minera-logical Characteristics of Coal-based Cryptocry-stalline Graphite in Lutang Area, Hunan Province, China[J].Acta Mineralogica Sinica, 2018,38(02):142-151.
 Bokobza L, Bruneel J L, Couzi M. Raman spectroscopic investigation of carbon-based materials and their composites. Comparison between carbon nanotubes and carbon black[J]. Chemical Physics Letters, 2013, 590: 153-159.
  Wang Y, Serrano S, Jorge J Santia-go-Avilés. Raman characterization of carbon nanofibers prepared using electrospinning[J]. Synthetic Metals, 2003, 138(3):423-427.
 Fischbach DB (1963) Kinetics of graphitization of a petroleum coke. Nature 200:1281–1283.
 Fischbach DB (1971) The kinetics and mecha-nism of graphitization. In: Walker PL (ed) The chemistry and physics of carbon 7. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1–154.
 Walker PL (ed) The chemistry and physics of carbon 7. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1–154
 Bustin RM, Ross JV, Rouzaud JN (1995) Mechanisms of graphite formation from kerogen:experimental evidence. Int J Coal Geol 28:1–36.
 Cao Daiyong, Li Xiaoming, Deng juemei. Coup-ling effect between coalification and tectonic -thermal events——Geological records of geo-dynamics[J]. Earth Science Frontiers,2009, 16 (04):52-60.
49] Ju Yiwen, Lin Hong, Li Xiaoshi, et al. Tectonic deformation and dynamic metamorphism of coal[J]. Earth Science Frontiers,2009,16(01): 158-166.
 Bustin R M. Heating during thrust faulting in the Rocky Mountains: friction or fiction?[J]. Tectono-physics, 1983, 95(3-4): 309-328.
 Suchy V, Frey M, Wolf M. Vitrinite reflectance and shear-induced graphitization in orogenic belts: a case study from the Kandersteg area, Helvetic Alps, Switzerland[J]. International Journal of Coal Geology, 1997, 34(1-2): 1-20.
 Ross J V, Bustin R M. The role of strain energy in creep graphitization of anthracite[J]. Nature, 1990, 343(6253): 58-60.
 Liu W, Xu Y, Zhang S. A new kind of mechanism for hydrocarbon generated-mechanochemistral function and experimental prove[J]. Acta Sedi-mentologica Sinica, 2000, 18(2): 314-318.
 Wang Lu, Peng Yangwen, Cao Daiyong, et al. The tectonic framework and controlling mecha-nism of coal-based graphite in Lutang mining area, Hunan Province[J].Coal Geology & Explo-ration, 2020,48(01):48-54.
 Mo Jiafeng, Zhao xunlin, Zhu Wenqing, et al.Metallogenic law and prospecting direction of coal-based graphite in Hunan Province[J].Coal Geology & Exploration,2020,48(01):18-26.
 Mochida ， Ohtsubo R ， Takeshita K ， et al. Catalytic graphitization of graphitizable carbon by chromium ， manganese and molybdenum oxides[J]. Carbon，18(1)：25–30.
 Fitzer E，Weisenburger S. Evidence of catalytic effect of sulphur on graphitization between 1 400 and 2 000℃[J]. Carbon ， 1976 ， 14(4) ： 195–198.
 Inagaki M I. Natural graphite ： Experimental evidence for its formation and novel appli-cations[J]. Earth Science Frontiers ， 2005 ， 12(1)：171–181.
 Gonzalez D，And M M，Garcia A B. Influence of inherent coal mineral matter on the structural characteristics of graphite materials prepared from anthracites[J]. Energy & Fuels ， 2005 ， 19(1)：235–240.
 Ōya A, Ōtani S. Catalytic graphitization of carbons by various metals[J]. Carbon, 1979, 17(2): 131-137.
 Ōya A, Marsh H. Phenomena of catalytic graphitization[J]. Journal of Materials Science, 1982, 17(2): 309-322.
 Ōya A, Yamashita R, Ōtani S. Catalytic gra-phitization of carbons by borons[J]. Fuel, 1979, 58(7): 495-500.
 Thambiliyagodage C J , Ulrich S , Araujo P T , et al. Catalytic graphitization in nanocast carbon monoliths by iron, cobalt and nickel nano-particles[J]. Carbon, 2018:S00086223183034 76.
 Tzeng S S. Catalytic graphitization of electro-less Ni–P coated PAN-based carbon fibers[J]. Carbon, 2006, 44(10): 1986-1993.
 Tzeng S S, Lin Y H. The role of electroless Ni–P coating in the catalytic graphitization of PAN-based carbon fibers[J]. Carbon, 2008, 3(46): 555-558.
 Dhakate S R, Mathur R B, Bahl O P. Catalytic effect of iron oxide on carbon/carbon com-posites during graphitization[J]. Carbon, 1997, 35(12): 1753-1756.
 Yi S, Fan Z, Wu C, et al. Catalytic graphitization of furan resin carbon by yttrium[J]. Carbon, 2008, 2(46): 378-380.
 Yi Shoujun, Tang Zilong, Xia Xiaodong, et al. [J]. Catalytic graphitization of furan resin carbon by lanthanum[J].Journal of Central China Normal University (Natural Sciences), 2012,46(5): 582-585.
 Chen Li, Lv Chunxiang, Jiang Junqi,et al. Lv Yonggen. Effect of polyacrylonitrile gel fiber Boronizing on the graphitization process of carbon fiber [J]. new carbon material, 2019,34 (01): 95-104.
 Lu Reaction chemistry of organometallic com-pounds[M]. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press. 2000:60-62,79-87,112-117.
 Ma Shengming.Modern organic synthetic re-actions involving metals[M]. Guangzhou: Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 2001:10-25.
 Tian Yuan, Yang Rui, Lin Ruihua, et al. Influencing Factors and Catalytic Mechanism of Catalytic Effect in Catalytic Graphitization[J]. Material Science,2020,10(1):40-46.
 Li H, Zhang H, Li K, et al. Catalytic gra-phitization of coke carbon by iron: Under-standing the evolution of carbon Structure, morphology and lattice fringes[J]. Fuel, 2020, 279: 118531.
 Chen Chao, Wang Ao, Sun Kang,et al. Gra-phitization of Biomass Catalyzed by Ni[J]. Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products, 2019,39(03):94-100.
 Sevilla M, Fuertes A B. Catalytic graphitization of templated mesoporous carbons[J]. Carbon, 2006, 44(3): 468-474.
 Brockner W, Ehrhardt C, Gjikaj M. Thermal decomposition of nickel nitrate hexahydrate, Ni (NO3) 2· 6H2O, in comparison to Co (NO3) 2· 6H2O and Ca (NO3) 2· 4H2O[J]. Ther-mochimica Acta, 2007, 456(1): 64-68.
 Marsh H, Warburton A P. Catalytic graphitization of carbon using titanium and zirconium[J]. Carbon, 1976, 14(1): 47-52.
 Ōya A, Mochizuki M, Ōtani S, et al. An electron microscopic study on the turbostratic carbon formed in phenolic resin carbon by catalytic action of finely dispersed nickel[J]. Carbon, 1979, 17(1): 71-76.
 Mochida I, Ohtsubo R, Takeshita K, et al. Catalytic graphitization of non-graphitizable carbon by chromium and manganese oxides[J]. Carbon, 1980, 18(2): 117-123.
 Karatas C. Catalytic enhancement of graphite-CO2 reaction by in situ reduced chromium and nickel from their oxides Cr2O3 and NiO over the temperature range 850-1100° C[J]. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 2004, 113(1): 19-24
 Bin Y, Oishi K, Koganemaru A, et al. Catalytic effect of nickel under carbonization of polyimide films[J]. Carbon, 2005, 43(8): 1617-1627.
 Rastegar H, Bavand-Vandchali M, Nemati A, et al. Catalytic graphitization behavior of phenolic resins by addition of in situ formed nano-Fe particles[J]. Physica E: Low-dimensional Sys-tems and Nanostructures, 2018, 101: 50-61.
 Wang Hua. Effect of BN catalytic graphitization on structure and mechanical properties of carbon fibers [D]. Donghua University, 2016
 WANG Hua.The catalytic effect of boron nitride on the structure and mechanical properties of polyacry lonitile-based carbon fiber[D].Dong Hua University,2016.
 González D, Montes-Morán M A, Garcia A B. Influence of inherent coal mineral matter on the structural characteristics of graphite materials prepared from anthracites[J]. Energy & fuels, 2005, 19(1): 263-269.
 Nyathi M S, Clifford C B, Schobert H H. Characterization of graphitic materials prepared from different rank Pennsylvania anthracites[J]. Fuel, 2013, 114: 244-250.