American Journal of Agricultural Research


In-vitro Antioxidant Capacities and Genetic Classification of Indonesian Selected Pigmented Rice

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research In-vitro Antioxidant Capacities and Genetic Classification of Indonesian Selected Pigmented Rice Erlin Susilowati1, Addieni Zulfa Karimah1, Sandy Pradipta2, Bella Rhea Lavifa Sanjaya2, Mohammad Ubaidillah1,2,3, Tri Agus Siswoyo1,2,3* 1Graduate School of Biotechnology, University of Jember, Jember-68121, Indonesia. 2The Center of Excellence on Crop Industrial Biotechnology (PUI-PT BioTIn), University of Jember, Jember-68121, Indonesia. 3Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jember, Jember 68121, Indonesia Rice is a world-famous cereal food divided into pigmented and non-pigmented rice. Pigmented rice is popular as healthier food than non-pigmented rice due to its potency as an antioxidant. Nevertheless, the potential of pigmented rice has not been widely studied. Indonesian selected pigmented rice protein’s antioxidant potential and the non-protein compound were in-vitro studied. The antioxidant potencies were evaluated by extracting fresh seeds of nine pigmented rice (Aek Sibundong, Beureum Taleus, Gogo Niti-2, Lamongan-1, Merah SP, Merah Wangi, Mota, Ketan Hitam-2, and Super Manggis) and non-pigmented rice (IR-64) as control. Various free radical scavenging methods to determine the antioxidant activity (ABTS•+, DPPH•, OH• and O2-) were conducted. Meanwhile, the genetic classification was performed by a simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker to determine the relationship between varieties. The results showed that protein of Ketan Hitam-2 had the highest ABTS•+ radical scavenging (98.06%), followed by Beureum Taleus (42.54%). Ketan Hitam-2 protein also showed the highest OH• and O2- activities (43.49% and 6.02%, respectively). The highest DPPH• potency of the non-protein compounds also shown by Ketan Hitam-2 (32.23%) with the activity of OH• and O2- (20.63% and 14.56%, respectively). These results showed that Ketan Hitam-2 has the highest potency as an antioxidant, which could be recommended as a nutraceuticals compound. Keywords: Antioxidant; Pigmented rice; SSR marker ...

The social and economic diversity of the coffee-banana farming system and technology uptake in Central Uganda

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research The social and economic diversity of the coffee-banana farming system and technology uptake in Central Uganda Samuel Mpiira1, 2, 5, Phoebe Mose2, Mary Kipsat2, Christopher Sebatta4, Francis Kalyango1, Wilberforce Tushemereirwe1, Charles Staver3 1National Agricultural Research Organisation, P.O. Box 7065, Kampala Uganda; 2Maseno University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, School of Agriculture and Food Security, Kisumu, Kenya; 3Bioversity International, P. O.  Box 24384, Kampala, Uganda; 4Makerere University, Department of Agribusiness & Natural Resource Economics, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala Uganda; 5Buvuma District Local Government, P.O. Box 103, Lugazi Uganda Food systems of the future that will guarantee food and nutrition security of millions of poor farming households will have to be both economically and socially diverse. Diversity of farming systems acts as a catalyst for innovation, commercialisation as well as technology adoption. This study sought to find farm typologies and explore the social, enterprise and economic diversity of the various farm types based on a promoted Growing Bananas with Trees and Livestock (GBTL) technology system that was implemented by National Agricultural Research Organisation and Bioversity International in three districts of Central Uganda, Kiboga, Nakaseke and Ssembabule.  Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA), typologies were created in which two distinct clusters of farming households were revealed. Further analysis of the clusters through Food Consumption Scores, food classes, and other descriptive statistics indicated that the two clusters were socially and economically diverse. Findings indicated that Cluster 1 is made up of smaller farms with high crop diversity. Families in Cluster 1 sell more of their produce and subsequently have lower food security compared to the land-abundant, off-farm earning and more food secure Cluster 2. We failed to reject the hypothesis that socially and economically diverse farmers adopt technologies more given that the level ...

Evaluating the Potential for Improved and Sustainable Adoption of Conservation Agriculture in Northern Namibia

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Evaluating the Potential for Improved and Sustainable Adoption of Conservation Agriculture in Northern Namibia David Ifeanyi Uchezuba1* & Salom Mbai2 1Senior Lecturer Namibian University of Science and Technology, Department of Agriculture and Natural Resource Sciences, Tel. +264810425716 2Lecturer Namibia University of Science and Technology, Department of Agriculture and Natural Resource Sciences, Tel. +264813902376 The study evaluated the potential for improved and sustainable adoption of conservation agriculture in five regions in Namibia namely, Omusati, Kunene, Oshikoto, Ohangwena, and Oshana. Conventional system of farming involves, monoculture and deep soil tillage with ox-drawn ploughs with limited mechanisation. These practices are unproductive and unsustainable given increased uncertainty due to climate change.Therefore, conservation agriculture was introduced in the regions through the Food and Agricultural Organisation’s (FAO) assisted programme. The aim of the programme was to lower vulnerability by increasing the resilience of the smallholder farmers in the selected regions to adapt to climate change risks through the implementation of Conservation Agriculture (CA) and other complementary Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). The hypothesis is that increased CA knowledge would enhance improved outcomes. An empirical estimation of the relationship between the farmers learned CA skills, and the level of CA outcome was carried out using econometrics method. One hundred and forty-four farmers were sampled from the selected regions. The result indicates that additional CA knowledge may result in farmers’ improving their General Agricultural Practices. In order words, farmers are more likely to improve weeding than not, the area planted is more likely to increase than decrease and fertilizer application is more likely to increase significantly than not. There is an increase in the ordered log-odds of moving from a lower to a higher outcome level. For instance, a one-unit increase in the farmers' CA knowledge will result in 0.05 unit ...

Development of a General-Purpose Test Platform for Agricultural Navigation

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Development of a General- Purpose Test Platform for Agricultural Navigation Du Juan, Wang Yanxin, An Jiahao, Jin chengqian, Yin Xiang* School of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China. Field tests are necessary in establishing navigation models and algorithms for agricultural vehicle robots. And it costs much to use tractors or combine harvesters as the platform in terms of system modification, routine maintenance and fuel consumption. The objective of this research was to develop a general-purpose test platform for conducting experiments in agricultural autonomous navigation at a low cost based on a commercially available electric vehicle. A brushless motor was utilized as the power source for automatic steering. An analog PID controller was designed to compare steering commands and actual steering angle and calculate an appropriate voltage signal as the input of the motor driver. A rotary encoder was attached to the driving wheel and a digital PID controller was implemented to determine the throttle value in real-time in maintaining the test platform at a desired speed. A CAN-bus network was established to integrate the automatic steering system and the speed control system as two nodes for information communication. And a CAN node interface was reserved for receiving commands from autonomous navigation systems to be evaluated. Field tests showed that RMS errors were 2.6 cm and 0.054 m·s-1 for lateral offset and speed control, respectively, in tracking straight paths, which indicated that the newly developed test platform met requirements for agricultural navigation experiments. This work was supported by Key R&D Project of Shandong Province (2019JZZY010734); National Key Research and Development Program of China Sub-project (2017YFD0700405); National Natural Science Foundation of China (31501230); National Natural Science Foundation of China (51905318); and Shandong Province Science and Technology Planning Project ...

Active ingredients for weed control of food and vegetable crops in northern Côte d’Ivoire

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Active ingredients for weed control of food and vegetable crops in northern Côte d'Ivoire N. S. Singo1,2, A. Touré2, N. J. Kouakou2, Y. R. Baka2, J. Ipou IPou2 1African Center of Excellence for Climate Change, Biodiversity and Sustainable Agriculture (CEA-CCBAD), Félix Houphouët-Boigny University; 2Botany Laboratory, UFR Biosciences, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d'Ivoire Agriculture in the north of Côte d’Ivoire, like the rest of the country, is undergoing genuine development. This situation is leading producers to adopt new cultivation techniques, including the use of herbicides for weed control. Herbicides have advantages and disadvantages in their handling. Knowing how dangerous these products can be, identifying them would be advantageous, hence this study. The main objective of this study is to establish a list of herbicides used on vegetable and food crops in the study area. In the departments of Boundiali, Ferké, Korhogo, and Séguéla directed interviews were conducted with traders, producers, and firms. They focused on the active ingredients of the herbicides, the type, and the mode of use. At the end of the study, seventy-seven herbicides divided into twenty-two active ingredients were identified. Glyphosate was the most present followed by nicosulfuron. To conclude, it should be noted that herbicides are present in the habits of the producers in our study area. They still do not use the products according to the standards. These results will help improve the quality and sustainability of agriculture. Keywords: Actives ingredients; Weeds control; Food et vegetable crops; Côte d’Ivoire ...

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American Journal of Agricultural Research

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