American Journal of Agricultural Research

Extraction and Characterization of Oil and Cake from Neem Seed Kernels Collected from Hamelmalo Region

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Extraction and Characterization of Oil and Cake from Neem Seed Kernels Collected from Hamelmalo Region Syed Danish Yaseen Naqvi*, Adugna Haile, and Daniel Brhane Department of Plant Protection, Hamelmalo Agricultural College The most researched tree, Neem (Azadirachta indicaA. Juss) is found to African countries including Eritrea(locally named as Miim).It has an important in the global context because neem seed, leaves, bark etc. are considered as biological pesticides against insect pests, nematodal infestations and diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and storage pests in the agricultural crops without showing any harmful effects. In Eritrea, the usages of neem products are meager; hence this project projects the introduction of neem oil and cake as ecofriendly pesticide. Seeds of neem collected, de-husked and attained the kernels for the extraction of oil and cakes by cold press extraction method with the help of a devise that was made locally. About 5kg of neem kernels can be used once in this screwed devise which can be streamed 15% of oil and 4.25kg cake within 20-30 minutes. The physical and chemical properties such as specific gravity, viscosity, free fatty acid content, iodine value and saponification values were determined as per the standard procedure to authenticate the pesticidal properties of neem oil. The organic acid contents of neem oil were also analyzed to verify their bioactive properties. Keywords: Neem Cake; Neem Oil, Physico-Chemical Properties; Botanical pesticide; Fertilizer ...

Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Yield and Yield Related Traits in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Genotypes

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Yield and Yield Related Traits in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Genotypes Dejen Bekis FNRRTC Garlic production in most areas of Ethiopia especially in Amhara region is constrained by shortage of varieties, occasional ice storm raining, poor agronomic practice coupled with susceptibility to pests. Forty nine garlic genotypes were evaluated to determine magnitude of genetic variability for bulb yield and yield related traits in garlic accessions recently collected by Debreziet Agricultural Research center and Fogera National Rice Research and Training Center (FNRRTC) from different parts of Ethiopia. The experiment was laid out using 7x7 simple lattice design with two replications at FNRRTC in 2017/18. Data were collected for ten agronomic traits and analysis of variance revealed significant differences (p<0.01) among the genotypes for all traits except bulb length and yield per plant. Bulb yield per plant ranged from 1 to 38.35 gram with a mean of 12.4 gram. Moreover, three genotypes (G-17, G-22 and G-47) produced higher yield ranging from 15.7 to 38.35gram than the yield of four check varieties Tseday(G-1), Chefe(G-4), Kurfitu(G-30) and HL(G-36).Ten (20.4%) genotypes were early maturing than the check varieties. The genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) ranged from 5.1 and 5.4% for days to maturity to 55.5 and 68.9% for yield per plant. All traits had high broad sense heritability while genetic advance as percent of mean (GAM) ranged from 10.0 for days to maturity to 98.4% for neck diameter. Except days to maturity, all characters had high heritability coupled with high GAM which reflecting the presence of additive gene action for the expression of these traits and improvement of these traits could be done through selection. Keywords: Garlic (Allium sativum L.), Genetic advance, Genetic variability, ...

Characterization and Analysis of Crop production System for Research and Development Intervention

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Characterization and Analysis of Crop production System for Research and Development Intervention Kibret Ketema, Jafer Mume, Abdulalziz Teha, & Alemayehu Birri Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Fedis Agricultural Research Centre Agriculture is the dominant economic activity and the base of livelihood for the residents of East Hararghe Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The livelihood of the residents of East Hararghe Zone dependent on agriculture; however, the sector in the Zone is at subsistence level and efforts has been put to adapt and promote improved technologies that would help to boost production is not satisfactory. For the successful research and development intervention, analysis of the existing crop production system is crucial to understand the real situation. In this line, this study was with specific objectives of identifying crop production systems, and prioritizing major constraints in the study area.The study was used Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRA) tools such as household survey, focus group discussions, pair-wise ranking, and field observation. A total of 329 farm householders were selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result of PRA indicates that five major farming typologies:-Chat/Maize highland mixed farming system (CMHMFS), Sorghum/maize/cash crops midland mixed farming system (SMCMMFS), Coffee/maize mixed farming system (CMMFS), Sorghum/groundnut lowland mixed farming system (SGLMFS) and Agro pastoral/pastoral farming system (APPFS) were identified in the Zone. Results of PRA study revealed that the main crop production constraints were lack of improved varieties, shortage were identified as the first limiting factor followed by insect pests, shortage of improved seeds supply, erratic rainfall distribution, soil fertility declining and extension service availability in decreasing order of priority. Hence, there is need for research, development and institutional interventions to alleviate the identified constraints to crop production in the study area through holistic ...

Induce systemic Resistance against root rot and wilt diseases in faba bean as a possible and effective control

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Induce systemic Resistance against root rot and wilt diseases in faba bean as a possible and effective control Manal, Sayed Mohammed Khalila*; Mohamed Hassan Abdel-Rahem Hassanb; Amer Fayz Mahmoudb and Kadry Mostafa Mohamed Morsya aPlant Pathology Dept., Faculty of Agric., Assiut Univ., 71526 Assiut, Egypt bLeguminous Crops and Fodder Dis. Res. Dep., Plant Pathol. Res. Instit., ARC, Giza 12619, Egypt Root rot and wilt diseases caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks faba bean plants in New valley Governorate, Egypt. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors viz.: salicylic Acid (SA), ascorbic acid (AA), humic acid (HA) and Bion was evaluated as faba bean seed soaking, compared to untreated control treatment under greenhouse and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, all the tested chemical inducers have no effect or little effect on linear growth of all tested pathogenic fungal isolates. On the other hand, all tested chemical inducers at different concentrations were decreased the root rot and wilt severity. Salicylic acid at 400 and Bion at 1000 ppm recorded the lowest root rot and wilt severity. All chemical inducers individually or in combination with R. leguminosarum significantly decreased root rot and wilt diseases under greenhouse and field conditions as well as increased total yield /feddan under field conditions. The combination between chemical inducers and R. leguminosarum more effective for controlling root rot and wilt diseases and increased seed yield/feddan than individually treatment. Application of SA and Bion + R. leguminosarum recorded the lowest percentage of root rot and wilt severity and the highest plant growth and yield parameter during both growing seasons. Keywords: Faba bean, Root rot and wilt diseases, Chemical inducers, Seed yield ...

Review on the protein content of different wheat varieties

Review Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Review on the protein content of different wheat varieties Abraha Gebregewergis Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center In the world wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit quality differences. Pakistan and Ethiopia are best examples of wheat producers found in different agro-climatic ranges. Grain protein percentage is an important component of grain quality. Protein contents measured by standard Kjeldahl method show a higher level than protein contents calculated from NIRS. Generally grain protein contents in wheat varies between 8% and 17%, depending on genetic make-up and on external factors associated with the crop. The Pakistan’s results regarding standard Kjeldahl analysis of protein reveals highest level of 11.2% protein in variety Bakhtawar-92, while Tatara, Watan, Bhakkar-01, Wafaq-01, Gandam-2002 and Chudry-97 contain 11.0% protein. The lowest value is present in Saleem-2000 (9.0%). Wheat grain quality of three bread wheat varieties namely Pavon 76, HAR 2501 and HAR 2536 grown in Arsi and Bale areas of Ethiopia were determined. The wheat varieties had a protein content of 10.60, 11.53 and 10.70%, respectively. Relatively, the wheat varieties collected from Ethiopia has higher amount of protein content compared to those of Pakistan wheat varieties. This variation may be due to method differences but not significant at 95% confidence level. This study is significant to further improve their nutritional excellence. Keywords: Bread Wheat; Grain Quality; Wheat varieties; Protein content ...

Dr. Ajai Kumar Srivastav
Emeritus Professor, Department of Zoology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University

Dr. Osman Tiryaki
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Terzioglu Campus, 17020, ÇANAKKALE, TURKEY

Prof.Dr. Süleyman Taban
Professor, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Ankara University, Ankara-TURKEY

Dr. Nikolay Dimitrov Panayotov
Professor & Head, Department of Horticulture, Agricultural University

Dr.  Samuel Ohikhena Agele 
Lecture/Researcher, Department of Crop, Soil & Pest Management, Federal University of Technology

Dr. Ghousia Begum
Principal Scientist, Toxicology Unit, Biology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology

Dr. Sirisha Adamala
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Engineering, Vignan's University

Dr. Mala Trivedi
Professor, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, AUUP, Lucknow-226028

Dr Ambreesh Singh Yadav
Scientific Officer, U.P. Council of Agricultural Research, Lucknow, U.P., India

Dr. Abd El-Aleem Saad Soliman Desoky
Professor, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag University

Dr. Chang-Hong Liu
Professor, School of life sciences, Nanjing University, P.R. China

Dr. İrfan Özberk
Professor & Head, Dept. of Field Crops, Fac. of Agri, The Univ. of Harran, Sanliurfa, Turkey

Dr. Papadakis Ioannis
Assistant Professor, Laboratory of Pomology, Agricultural University of Athens

Associate Professor & Head, Center for Research in Ethno & Medico Botany Dr. R.M.L. PG. College ( C.S.J.M. UNIVERSITY)

Dr. Ayman EL Sabagh
Assistant professor, agronomy department, faculty of agriculture, kafresheikh university, Egypt; Visiting scientist at Field Crops Department ,Faculty of Agriculture , Cukurova University, Turkey

Dr. Alaa Jabbar Abd Al-Manhel
Assistant Professor, Agriculture college /Basra University

Dr. Bibhuti Bhusan Sahoo
Scientist, Regional Research & Technology Transfer Station, (OUAT), Semiliguda

Dr. Sedat Karadavut
Assistant Professor, Agricultural Structers and İrrigation (Biosystems Engineering), Trakya University/TURKEY

Dr. Abhishek Naik
Area Manager, Technology development department

Dr. Ionel BONDOC
Associate Professor, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Iasi (ROMANIA), Department of Public Health

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American Journal of Agricultural Research