American Journal of Agricultural Research

Design of Twin Screw Feather Extruder and Study of Screw Parameters

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Design of Twin Screw Feather Extruder and Study of Screw Parameters Haoze Li1, Ping Jiang1, Keying Li1, Huawei Liu1, Ping Zhang1, Guohai Zhang1* 1School of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, 255000, China. Poultry feathers are rich in amino acids and keratin resources, which is a kind of protein feed raw materials with high nutritional value. A twin-screw extruder was designed to deal with the environmental damage caused by the shortage of rapidly developing protein feed and the large amount of feather waste in China’s livestock breeding industry. The bulking machine can break the disulfide bond and hydrogen bond in feather keratin to form crude protein which can be absorbed by livestock. A kind of high-protein feed feather powder was developed while protecting the environment. The combination mode and rotation direction between two screws are discussed, the relationship between the key basic parameters of the twin screw is derived by combining the motion principle of the twin screw and the relative geometric position. It provides theoretical basis for determining screw parameters and working condition parameters in the following experimental research. Keywords: Twin screw extruder; Puffed feather powder; Screw combination; Twin screw structure ...

Nutritional Potential of Some Invasive Species of Macaronesia for Ruminants

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Nutritional Potential of Some Invasive Species of Macaronesia for Ruminants C.S.A.M. Maduro Dias, C.F.M. Vouzela, H.J.D. Rosa, J.S. Madruga and A.E.S. Borba University of the Azores, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Research and Technology (IITAA). Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Açores, Portugal. Macaronesia islands’ invasive plant use in animal feed or composting may bring economic and environmental benefits to the region. Arundo donax, Pennisetum setaceum, Agave americana, and Ricinus communis, present in the three archipelagos (Canary, Azores and Madeira), were characterized chemically and biologically. A. donax and P. setaceum showed elevated crude protein (CP) content, 13.25 and 16.33 DM%, respectively, and extremely high NDF values, 75.87 and 80.83 DM%, with a DM digestibility of 55.02 to 59.77%. A. americana showed a low NDF value (22.78 to 27.94 DM%) and a very low CP value (4.24 to 5.61 DM%). However, its DM digestibility was high (79.89 to 86.33%). R. communis presented the best values for CP (24.62%) and NDF (26.56 DM%), however, due to the presence of toxic substances (ricin), it cannot be easily used in animal feed. The P. setaceum and R. communis were found to be the least gas-producing forage, with A. americana being the major producer. To increase these plants’ value for animal feed, treatment with urea or NaOH to A. donax and P. setaceum, and enrichment with nitrogen to Agave is proposed. Due to its toxic properties, R. communis must be used in composting. This work has been funded by Ecofibras Project (MAC/4.6d/040) and INV2MAC project (MAC2/4.6d/229), and by FEDER funds via Operational Programme Competitiveness Factors– COM-PETE and by Regional Funds from Secretaria Regional do Mar, Ciência e Tecnologia. Keywords: Invasive plants; Nutritive valorisation; Composting; Macaronesia ...

Research status and prospects of potato seed-metering device

Review Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Research status and prospects of potato seed-metering device Tianyuan Qiu, Linlin Wang, Weipeng Chen, Baochang Zhang, Shandong Yang* School of Agricultural Engineer and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China Potato has been widely planted, and China’s potato planting area and total output have become the first in the world. As an important part of the whole mechanization technology, potato planting mechanization directly affects the quality and yield of potato. As the core component of potato planter, the performance of seed metering device directly affects the operation quality of planter. In recent years, with the continuous efforts of researchers and manufacturers at home and abroad, the types and research technology of seed metering device are constantly innovating and improving. This paper mainly introduces the key technologies and types of seed metering devices used in the main models in China and abroad, as well as the existing problems and future development direction of different types of seed metering devices. Keywords: Potato, Seed metering device, Problems, Key technology ...

The influence of biofertilizer effect on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) crop yield under greenhouse and field conditions in Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Review Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research The influence of biofertilizer effect on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) crop yield under greenhouse and field conditions in Guelph, Ontario, Canada Sean Simpson1, Kari E. Dunfield1, Kamini Khosla1, Eric M. Lyons2, Mahendra Thimmanagari3, Brent Coleman1, Naresh V. Thevathasan1* 1School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada; 2Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada; 3Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, 1 Stone Road, Guelph, ON, Canada Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of biofertilizers on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) yields compared to inorganic fertilizer and a zero-control. In the greenhouse, Variovorax paradoxus JM63, JumpStart® (Penicillium bilaii), inorganic fertilizer and control treatments resulted in significantly higher per L pot biomass yields compared to the control treatment; 2.74 (±0.24), 2.55 (±0.10),  2.52 (±0.24) and 1.34 (±0.09) g L-1, respectively. As JumpStart® is a commercially available biofertilizer, it was used in the field experiment along with inorganic and control treatments. All three treatments were applied to established (2014) switchgrass plots. Significantly (p<0.05) higher biomass yields of 10.73 (±1.33) and 7.67 (±0.30) Mg ha-1 were recorded for JumpStart® and inorganic fertilizer treatments, respectively, when compared to the zero-control biomass yield of 5.36 (±0.87) Mg ha-1. The enumeration soil test revealed that soil from JumpStart® and zero-control treatments had 20033, and <100 cfu/g of soil of Penicillium spp., respectively. Results suggest that commercially available JumpStart® could replace/supplement inorganic fertilizer application on well-established switchgrass fields but, its influence on long-term biomass yields need to be further verified. Keywords: Herbaceous biomass, soil health, Rhizobacteria, Penicillium bilaii ...

Comparative analyses of plantain vivoplants responses to different clam shells and Tithonia diversifolia treatments in terms of growth promotion and induced resistance against Mycosphaerella fijiensis

Review Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Comparative analyses of plantain vivoplants responses to different clam shells and Tithonia diversifolia treatments in terms of growth promotion and induced resistance against Mycosphaerella fijiensis C.A. Ewané1,2* and T. Boudjeko1,2 1Laboratory of Phytoprotection and Plant Valorization, Biotechnology Centre, University of Yaoundé 1, Messa-Yaoundé, Cameroon. 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon. The seeds availability and quality are the main constraints for agricultural explosion of plantain productivity in sub-Saharan Africa countries. Plantain vivoplants were generated and submitted to different treatments in the nursery, the plant responses were analysed and compared in other to determine the best treatment influencing the growth promotion and induced resistance to Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Plantain explants and vivoplants were treated with five different treatments: clam shells powder (T1), clam shells and Tithonia diversifolia powder (T2), Tithonia diversifolia flakes (T3), Tithonia diversifolia mulch (T4), Tithonia diversifolia liquid extract (T5). The treatments were applied by their incorporation in the substrate (T1, T2, T3 and T4) or by watering of the whole plant (T5). The germination rate was evaluated and recorded in the greenhouse at the germination and pre-emergence stage, followed by the agromorphological measurements on the vivoplants and their inoculation with Mycosphaerella fijiensis in the shade at the vegetative growth stage. Biochemical analysis was done on the vivoplants leaves tissues. The vivoplants respond positively to all the treatments by a quick germination and emergence, coupled with an important biomarker’s accumulation (total proteins and phenolics). It turns out that the best treatment was T5 (T. diversifolia liquid extract), followed by T4 (T. diversifolia mulch). However, depending on the expected response in the vivoplants, all these treatments have proven to be impactful. Therefore, a combination of Tithonia diversifolia liquid extract (T5) with clams’ shells (T1) could be useful to boost the ...

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American Journal of Agricultural Research