American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology


Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology Frontal branch of Facial Nerve and the Temporal Region Badr M I Abdulrauf MD, FRCSC Section of Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center Jeddah Saudi Arabia. Several layers of various soft tissues with interchanging characteristics exist below and above the zygomatic arch, this makes the temporal region anatomy somewhat uneasy to comprehend and recall. The frontal (or Temporal) branch of facial nerve is however the ultimate reason why it becomes important to study this area. Apart from Plastic, aesthetic and Reconstructive surgery, few other surgical specialties often need to work on this region, some of the common procedures include Coronal approaches; Zygoma fracture reduction; Temporoparietal flap elevation; Face and brow lift. There was a need for thorough review of this area from a surgeon’s perspective and to come up with as clear possible messages to be made in regard this topic. After an extensive literature search, we came up with few conclusions and three key illustrations that we strongly believe are crucial to be remembered. The rationale of following certain path of dissection in the temporal region, depending on the planned operation is explained. Eponyms used in literature for various structures have been discussed and clarified. The relationship of the frontal nerve to its surrounding fasciae within the zygomatic zone and Temporoparietal fascia is further explored. This updated review and guidelines are specifically been developed and recommended as an educational tool for in training surgical residents of concerned specialties, as well as for practicing surgeons in those areas to update their anatomy knowledge of this critical region. Keywords: Temporal region; Frontal branch; Temporal branch; Facial nerve; Face lift; Brow lift; Temporparietal fascia; Flap; Deep temporal fascia; Anatomy; Relations ...


Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology METABOLISM: PANCREAS AND GLYCEMIC REGULATING HORMONES Francisco Henrique da Silva1, Matheus Alves Siqueira de Assunção2, Alamisne Gomes da Silva3, Evandro Valentim da Silva4, Aline Fernanda Carneiro Cardoso3, Fálba BernadeteRamos dos Anjos2 1Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil 2Department of Histology and Embryology, Federal University of Pernambuco,  Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil 3Pharmaceutical of University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil 4Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Pernambuco,  Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Understanding the physiology of the metabolic regulation of hormones responsible for glycemic control is of fundamental importance for a thorough understanding of Diabetes Mellitus. In this scenario, this chapter is intended to explain this regulation, as well as the main hormones that participate in this metabolic process. Keywords: Insulin, Glucagon, Hormone Regulation ...


Case Report of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY: CLINICAL CASE Miranda Nava Gabriel1, Gallo Frías Luis Gilberto2, Maria Preciado2 1Department of Neurology, Hospital Center of the Presidential General Staff, Masters in Public Health, Doctor in administration and Public Policies, Mexico 2University of Guadalajara Lamar MD. Social Service. Acute mesenteric ischemia refers to a sudden onset of intestinal hypoperfusion, which can be due to a reduction or cessation of arterial inflow leading to cellular damage, intestinal necrosis and eventually death if untreated.[1] The incidence is low, estimated at 0.09-0.2% of all acute surgical admissions [2] , this incidence increases with age having a median age of presentation of 70 years old and has a predispose for women at a 3:1 ratio.[3] Prompt diagnostic and innervation are necessary due to increase mortality rates from 50-80%. Mayor risk factors include atrial fibrillation, recent myocardial infarction, cardiac valvulopathies, hypertension, atherosclerosis, obesity, and tabaco. [4] Keywords: Toxic megacolon, exploratory laparotomy, superior mesenteric artery ischemia ...


Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology HUTCHINSON-GILFORD SYNDROME: A LITERATURE REVIEW Guilherme Rodrigues Wanderley de Oliveira1* Amanda Thalya Soares da Silva¹, Larissa Jennifer Nascimento Andrade¹, Julliana Carvalho Rocha2, Héberte de Santana Arruda3 1Graduandos em Odontologia pela Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 2Graduanda em Ciências Biológicas Bach pela Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 3Mestrando do programa de pós-graduação em Dentística/Endodontia pela FOP/UPE Introduction: To review several studies and reports regarding the causes, diagnoses and characteristics of the study and development of Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome (HGPS) or progéria. Methodology: Through articles found in the following databases: PubMed Central, Scielo, BVS, Bireme, Scientific Electronic Library Online. Discussion: The approach follows from its genetic origin to its progressive stage of incurable aging along with Therapeutic Strategies for greater well-being and longevity for the patient, in the search to minimize the various pathologies that are submitted throughout their life, trying to increase their expectation average of 13.6 years. Conclusion: Because it is a rare and incurable disease, only palliative treatments for this syndrome are found. Keywords: Hutchinson, Gilford, Progeria ...

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American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology