American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

Regulatory T Lymphocytes: a Powerful Regulator of the Immunological System

Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology Regulatory T Lymphocytes: a Powerful Regulator of the Immunological System Souza P.C1, Júnior A.S.A.A2 1Estudante do Curso de Biomedicina – UNINASSAU; 2Docente – UNINASSAU. Introduction: The immune system works by stimulating direct action against various antigens and also by means of “immune memory”. When the organism is induced by a responder to an antigenic aggression, action of several cells occurs by modeling this response, among them they are like regulatory T cells (Tregs). These represent a sub-population of CD4 + T lymphocytes characterized by the expression of the CD25 + molecule and by the nuclear factor FOXP3. Objective: To review the mechanisms of action of Tregs cells in the containment of the immune system. Methodology: The present work consists of a literature review. A localization of the articles was performed in the electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo and Lilacs, between 2012 and 2017. Results and discussion: currently, it is postulated that there are three mechanisms used by Treg cells for their abilities. What is the control of suppressive factors, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), suppressive cytokines such as TGF-β, direct cytolysis or negative signaling through the CTLA-4 molecule, which will inhibit cell proliferation and differentiation. The second method, soluble suppression factors, such as IL-10 cytokines, TGF-β and IL-35, or secretion of suppressive factors from antigen-presenting cells such as adenosine. The third mechanism is based on the competition for cytokines that signal through common γ-chain receptors (IL-2, IL-4 and IL-7), leading to immune cell apoptosis by growth factor deprivation. Conclusion: Tregs cells are potent regulators of the immune system that act by decreasing an immune system’s action excessively. It is believed that with a better understanding of the mechanism of action such as cells, such as Tregs seriously manipulated with a purpose to aid ...

Marker of Cardiometabolic Risk in Teenagers: the Influence in Excess of Weight

Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology Marker of Cardiometabolic Risk in Teenagers: the Influence in Excess of Weight Araújo M.G1, Cruz Júnior A.A2, Macedo J.M.Q3, Lima M.E.A4, Menezes R.S5, Medeiros J.P6 1,2,3,4,5Student Majoring in Nursing - UFPE; 6 Veterinary Doctor, Adjunct Professor, Department of Histology and Embryology - UFPE. Introduction: Usually teenagers present biopsychosocial transformations being expressed between childhood and adulthood. According to the National School Health Survey, the prevalence of overweight students was 25.1%. This can lead to health problems such as diabetes, heart problems and poor skeletal formation. So, this is why excess weight associated with inactivity and inadequate diet may trigger risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Objectives: To identify the prevalence of overweight for cardio metabolic diseases in teens. Methodology: A literature search was conducted in the Scientific Electronic Library Online and MedLine databases using the following descriptors: cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, teens, overweight and obesity. obesity. 89 articles were found. After applying the cut of the last 5 years (2013-2017), there were 14 articles that made up the review. Results and discussion: According to the bibliographical findings, it is verified that with the advent of technology, sedentary lifestyle at early ages is evidenced, affecting adulthood through cardio metabolic diseases. Data from Fiocruz reveals that out of the teenagers who are suffering from obesity; eight out of ten remain obese in adulthood. Thus, regular physical activity and a balanced diet contribute to the better development of adolescent metabolism. In addition, the family history of cardio metabolic diseases influences the excess weight of the adolescents, reflecting in subsequent generations. Conclusion: It was found that there is a shortage in the literature associated with the prevention and encouragement of a healthy way of eating and physical practices in this society ...

Creation of a Validation Protocol of Anatomical Handmade Models for Human Anatomy in Higher Education

Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology Creation of a Validation Protocol of Anatomical Handmade Models for Human Anatomy in Higher Education Barros D.G.L¹, Carvalho M.E.T2, Costa M.A.S3, Marques A.K.C.S4; Silva T.M5, Carvalho R.P6 1Graduação em biomedicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE; 2,4Mestranda, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas; 3Graduando em Biomedicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE; 5Graduado, Universidade Pernambuco – UPE; 6Mestre, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neuropsiquiatria e Ciências do Comportamento Introduction: The creation of low cost anatomical pieces has been disseminated in Brazilian Universities in order to minimize the educational shortcomings of the lack of accessible didactic material. Objetive: This work aims at the creation of a validation protocol for anatomical handmade models, evaluating efficacy in teaching-learning and standardizing the anatomical models produced in the disciplines of Human Anatomy. Methodology: Initially a search of articles on models already created was done, and the methodologies of creation and practical evaluation of each model were indicated and formulated a general protocol. Results and Discussion: The protocol was divided into: 1) Initial considerations and 2) pre-test, aiming to classify the classes and identify systematic errors; 3) Testing and 4) Statistical analysis, practical test and statistical validation of the model’s efficiency for learning. Initial considerations and pre-test provide an overview of class performance. The test is a theoretical-practical exercise applied after the theoretical classes and presentation of the model. Conclusion: The protocol must be used in new models to test its efficiency for suitability in each discipline, maintaining a common trunk and logical sequence of data acquisition and validation of the handmade anatomical piece as additional tools for teaching. Keywords: Anatomy; Teaching; Studies of validation ...

Associated to the Proteinic Malnutrition on the Physical Mass and the Parameters Mices Cardiovasculares

Research Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology Associated to the Proteinic Malnutrition on the Physical Mass and the Parameters Mice's Cardiovasculares Rocha Júnior, R.L1; Souza, V.O.N2; Andrade, L.D.S3; Dornelas, P.E4; Leandro, C.V.G5; Silva, J.H.C6 1Estudante do Curso de Enfermagem UFPE-CAV, 2Doutoranda em Nutrição pelo Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição, CCS-UFPE, Recife-PE, 3Mestranda em Nutrição pelo Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição, CCS-UFPE, Recife-PE, 4Estudante do Curso de Saúde Coletiva UFPE-CAV, 5Docente/Pesquisador do Departamento de Educação Física UFPE-CAV, 6Docente/Pesquisador do Departamento de Nutrição UFPE-CAV. Introduction: The proteinic malnutrition perinatal is able to promote alterations cardiovasculares and in the corporal mass of the progeny. Experimental models of motherly voluntary physical activity (AFV) in cicloergômetro before and during the gestation it seems to reduce the effects of the malnutrition. Objetive: The objective of the work valued the effects of the proteinic malnutrition and AFV during the period perinatal on the corporal mass and the parameters cardiovasculares of the progeny. Methodology: Confirmed Wistar was used (n=8) originating from mothers who before the gestation were arranged individually in cages of AFV by a period adaptativo of 30 days. After this period the rats were classified in two groups in accordance with the daily level of physical activity: Inactive or Active. Next, same they were subjected to the mating and from the first day of pregnancy they received diet normoproteica (NP, 17 % of protein) or hipoproteica (HP, 8 % of protein). In the 30th day of life of the progenies the proceeding is carried out for implant of the catheters in the artery femoral, for subsequent register of the middle blood pressure (PAM), pressure sistólica (PS), pressure diastólica (PD) and cardiac frequency (FC). The results were expressed on average ± EPM. Test ANOVA one-way was used and p < 0.05 All the proceedings were approved ...

Dr. Pallavi Kamra
Pediatrician, Clinicas del Camino Real, Camarillo, CA, USA

Dr. Ayanabha Chakraborti
Senior Researcher, Department of Surgery, THT-1066, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Dr. Gelase Fredy Nsonde Ntandou
Faculty of Science and Technology, Marien NGOUABI University

Dr. Divyanshu ( Divy) Dua
Royal Australasian College of Physicians

Dr. Prakash Prajapat
Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Mehsana Urban Institute of Sciences, Ganpat University, Mehsana-384012, Gujarat, INDIA

Dr Divya R
Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Karpagam Faculty of Medical Science & Research Centre

Dr. Kabita Mishra
Senior Research Fellow (Homoeopathy), D.D.P.R.-Central Research Institute for Homoeopathy , (Ministry of A.Y.U.S.H., Government of India)

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1.Souza P.C, Júnior A.S.A.A. Regulatory T Lymphocytes: a Powerful Regulator of the Immunological System. American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 2018, 1:4 

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American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology