American Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences


Recent developments and advances in Ti/TiO2-NTs/PbO2 electrodes:A general Review of their controllable preparation and application in wastwater treatment

Review Article of American Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Recent developments and advances in Ti/TiO2-NTs/PbO2 electrodes:A general Review of their controllable preparation and application in wastwater treatment FuQiang Wei, Chao Hu, Bo Wang, JiaQi Ju, HeYing Chen, Ying Wang College of Ocean Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306, China. Ti/TiO2-NTs(nanotubes)/PbO2 is a new composite electrode material,which has been considered as an optimal electrode material for electrochemical oxidation of organic contaminants in the aquatic environmentthat due to its its good physical and chemical properties,such as good electrocatalytic activity, high oxygen evolution potential, corrosion resistance, good stability, environmental friendliness and simple preparation. The fundamental research and practical application of Ti/ TiO2-NTs(nanotubes)/PbO2 electrodes in the mineralization of organic pollutants have been well developed up to now. So this paper mainly reviews the preparation methods of Ti/TiO2-NTs/ PbO2 electrodes and the structural characterization methods of electrode materials first. And then, the basic principle of electrocatalytic oxidation will be introduced in detail and the application of this electrodes in water treatment is going to be summarized systematically. Further, we also proposed the existing problems in recent research and the potential development direction of electrocatalytic water treatment technology in the future, which could provide reference for the follow-up research. Keywords:  PbO2; Ti /TiO2-NTs electrodes; Electrochemical oxidation; Wastewater treatment ...

Study on the Mechanism of Humic Acid on Ultrafiltration Membrane

Research Article of American Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Study on the Mechanism of Humic Acid on Ultrafiltration Membrane Yuewen Sun, Anchao Geng College of Ocean Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306, China. In view of the problem of clogging of ultrafiltration membrane in ultrafiltration process, the contamination mechanism of humic acid solution on ultrafiltration membrane was studied in depth. Through the ultrafiltration test of different concentrations of humic acid solution, it was found that humic acid can cause pollution to the ultrafiltration membrane, and the higher the humic acid concentration, the more serious the membrane contamination. The introduction of calcium carbonate particles can delay the progress of ultrafiltration membrane fouling in the initial stage of ultrafiltration, but as the ultrafiltration time increases, the membrane fouling rate increases rapidly. The kaolin particles can aggravate the contamination of the ultrafiltration membrane by humic acid, and the contamination can be washed away by the aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The introduction of calcium ions can significantly aggravate membrane fouling and polymerize humic acid molecular chains. Sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite alkali solution can effectively remove the humic acid pollution on the ultrafiltration membrane, wherein the sodium hydroxide solution has better cleaning effect, and the calcium carbonate-containing pollutant can be washed with a citric acid solution. Keywords:  Ultrafiltration membrane; Humic acid; Membrane fouling; Calcium ion; Kaolin ...

A mathematical model for grading clouds to study solar flares based on fuzzy c-means algorithm

Research Article of American Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences A mathematical model for grading clouds to study solar flares based on fuzzy c-means algorithm Xiaoxi Men1, Guozhu Chen2*, Xiaoxiong Zuo3, Haijun Guo2 1.College of Electrical Engineering & New Energy, China Three Gorges University, China. 2.College of Hydraulic & Environmental Engineering, China Three Gorges University, China. 3.College of Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, 443002, China. In this paper, a cloud-level grading comprehensive evaluation model based on fuzzy c-means algorithm is established. The image is binarized by the maximum inter-class variance method to obtain the dim curve. According to the dim curve of the four quadrants, the distribution and thickness of the cloud layer are discriminated. Three attributes of the effective area of the cloud layer, the total amount of clouds, and the thickness of the cloud amount are selected as the characteristic data of the comprehensive evaluation model. Keywords:  Dim curve; Fuzzy c-means algorithm; Cloud grading ...

Food insecurity in Nigeria and the need for effectual mitigating measures

Review Article of American Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Food insecurity in Nigeria and the need for effectual mitigating measures Ajie E. N1.and Uche, Chima2 1. Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria 2. University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria The downward slide in Nigeria’s food production has gradually led the country into becoming a food-deficit, food importing Nation because of the discovery of petroleum. Nigeria has degenerated into a significant food importing nation because the government neglected the agricultural sector for petroleum which is seen as a much viable resource income. As a consequence, the country is plunged into food insecurity because of rising prices of imported foods. Presently, Nigeria faces food shortage challenges and hunger. Before we can adequately address the underlying problems plaguing the food security system, we need to address the factors influencing agricultural development and sustainability in the economy with a view to improving on food security. Any policy design to tackle this should include inputs supply channels, technology improvement avenues and, credits and subsidies that are not cumbersome and needed. Until we see food insecurity as a gross abuse of human right, the paradigm shift advocated may never be attained. Keywords:  Food insecurity, Nigeria, effectual mitigating measures ...

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American Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

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