American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics

Surveillance of enteric parasites in an infectious diseases hospital, Kolkata, India

Research Article of American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Surveillance of enteric parasites in an infectious diseases hospital, Kolkata, India Sumallya Karmakar, Shanta Dutta and Sandipan Ganguly* ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, P 33 CIT Road, Scheme XM< Beliaghata, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal, India A hospital-based laboratory surveillance was conducted to study the prevalence and intensity of enteric parasites in India, with a special emphasis on West Bengal. The survey was conducted among the patients admitted between January 2010 and December 2015 to the Infectious Diseases (ID) Hospital with diarrhoeal complaints. The present study reports the occurrence and prevalence of 3 most abundant enteric parasites, viz. Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporadium sp. in Kolkata and surrounding. Of the 4208 samples screened during the study period from ID Hospital, 297 (7.05%) were positive for Giardia lamblia, 20 (0.475%) were positive for Entamoeba histolytica and 94 (2.23%) were positive for Cryptosporidium sp. Keywords: Surveillance, enteric parasites, infectious diseases hospital, Kolkata, India ...

Comparitve Effects of Moringa Oleifera Pods, Probiotics and Vitamin E/selenium on Body Weight Gain of Abor- Acre Broiler Chickens

Research Article of American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Comparitve Effects of Moringa Oleifera Pods, Probiotics and Vitamin E/selenium on Body Weight Gain of Abor- Acre Broiler Chickens 1*MUSA, I.W., 1BELLO, Y.M. and 2ANDAMIN, A.D. 1Department of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 2Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal College of Horticultural Technology, Dadin-kowa, Gombe State. Phytonutrients are reliable solutions to public health concerns on antibiotic resistance and adverse effects of synthetic growth promoters. This study evaluated the effects of Moringa oleifera pods and probiotic on the growth performance of broiler chickens. A total of 100-day-old ABOR-ACRE broiler chicks with average weight of 38 grams were purchased from a hatchery in Ibadan and used for this study. The chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups (A, B, C and D). Group A was fed basal diet supplemented with air dried Moringa oleifera pods powder at inclusion rate of 50g/kg, group B fed basal diet supplemented with a commercial probiotic (Bactofort®) at 0.5g/kg, group C that was fed commercial feed and supplemented vit E/Selenium in drinking water while group D fed only commercial feed served as control. Chickens in all groups were served same quantities of feed and water ad-libitum. Birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease (B1 and la Sota live vaccines-IZOVAC®) on days 7, 14 and 28. The birds were weighed weekly and feed intake evaluated. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and two-way ANOVA. Results showed significant difference (p<0.05) of weight gain of birds fed M. oleifera and probiotic. M. oleifera pods powder significantly improved live weight gain thus serving as alternative to commercial growth promoters in broilers. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Probiotics, Vitamin E, Growth performance, Broilers ...

Review on the use of Bacteriophages as a promising way of mitigating the crisis of Antimicrobial resistance

Review Article of American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Review on the use of Bacteriophages as a promising way of mitigating the crisis of Antimicrobial resistance Rekik Getahoun, Getahun Shawul, Kibeb Legesse and Asmelash Tassew* Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture , Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology and Public health, P.O.Box: 34; Debre Zeit, Ethiopia Antibiotic resistance is considered as a major threat to therapeutics in this era. This resistance has occurred due to various actions that neglect the ethical use of antimicrobials and antibiotics ending up in the abuse of these drugs in clinical, veterinary or agricultural practices. As the number of resistant pathogens increase, more drugs are being produced to cope with the situation and many research methodologies have been carried out in search of an alternative antimicrobial to assuage the threat of antimicrobial resistance. Consequently, phage therapy was discovered and considered effective as well as an alternative way to control the problem of antimicrobial and antibiotic resistance. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. They are commonly referred to as “phage”. They are obligate intracellular parasites that multiply inside bacteria by making use of some or all of the host biosynthetic machinery. The nucleic acids of phages often contain unusual or modified bases, which protect phage nucleic acid from nucleases that break down host nucleic acids during phage infection. Depending upon the phage, the nucleic acid can be either DNA or RNA but not both. Due to their unique characteristics they are considered more effective than other alternatives. Previous trials in the use of bacteriophages have proved that phage as therapeutics have the ability to target bacteria of certain strains or species, without any harmful effect on the rest of the bacterial microflora. Moreover, bacterial antibiotic resistance is not a barrier for phage ...

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anthelminthic Activity of Detarium Senegalense J.f Gmel (Fabaceae) Leaf Methanol Extract

Research Article of American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anthelminthic Activity of Detarium Senegalense J.f Gmel (Fabaceae) Leaf Methanol Extract 1Ukwubile CA, 2Troy SM, 3 Ikpefan OE and 2Musa YD 1 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Biology Unit, School of Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Nigeria. 2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 3Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. Detarium senegalense is an importance medicinal plant used in North-east Nigeria and some African countries in traditional medicine. This present study evaluated the preliminary phytochemical screening and anthelminthic activity of methanol leaf extract. Phytochemical screening was carried out by solvent-solvent partitioning of leaf extract in chloroform, n-hexane, dioxane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. The results showed that methanol fraction contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and cardiac glycosides while the ethyl acetate fraction contained only flavonoids with no anthracenes. Ethanol fraction demonstrated the highest anthelminthic activity with a decreased time of paralysis and death in the various groups of earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) in dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 30 mg/mL, and 40 mg/mL. The time for paralysis and death for Group VII 400 mg/mL of extract were 5.0 ± 0.3min and 10.0 ± 1.02 min respectively.  This result was compared with that of a standard anthelminthic drug piperazine citrate (USP) whose values were 12 ±1.01 min and 16 ± 1.02 min respectively for time of paralysis and death at p≤0.05 (one-way ANOVA). The results showed that D. senegalense leaf methanol extract possessed anthelminthic activities by osmotic shock at the clitellum portion of the earthworms, and this justifies the use of the plant extract in herbal medicine for the eradication of worms. Keywords: Detarium senegalense, Phytochemicals, Anthelminthic, Earthworms, Piperazine citrate ...

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American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics