American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics


Review on the use of Bacteriophages as a promising way of mitigating the crisis of Antimicrobial resistance

Review Article of American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Review on the use of Bacteriophages as a promising way of mitigating the crisis of Antimicrobial resistance Rekik Getahoun, Getahun Shawul, Kibeb Legesse and Asmelash Tassew* Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture , Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology and Public health, P.O.Box: 34; Debre Zeit, Ethiopia Antibiotic resistance is considered as a major threat to therapeutics in this era. This resistance has occurred due to various actions that neglect the ethical use of antimicrobials and antibiotics ending up in the abuse of these drugs in clinical, veterinary or agricultural practices. As the number of resistant pathogens increase, more drugs are being produced to cope with the situation and many research methodologies have been carried out in search of an alternative antimicrobial to assuage the threat of antimicrobial resistance. Consequently, phage therapy was discovered and considered effective as well as an alternative way to control the problem of antimicrobial and antibiotic resistance. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. They are commonly referred to as “phage”. They are obligate intracellular parasites that multiply inside bacteria by making use of some or all of the host biosynthetic machinery. The nucleic acids of phages often contain unusual or modified bases, which protect phage nucleic acid from nucleases that break down host nucleic acids during phage infection. Depending upon the phage, the nucleic acid can be either DNA or RNA but not both. Due to their unique characteristics they are considered more effective than other alternatives. Previous trials in the use of bacteriophages have proved that phage as therapeutics have the ability to target bacteria of certain strains or species, without any harmful effect on the rest of the bacterial microflora. Moreover, bacterial antibiotic resistance is not a barrier for phage ...

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anthelminthic Activity of Detarium Senegalense J.f Gmel (Fabaceae) Leaf Methanol Extract

Research Article of American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anthelminthic Activity of Detarium Senegalense J.f Gmel (Fabaceae) Leaf Methanol Extract 1Ukwubile CA, 2Troy SM, 3 Ikpefan OE and 2Musa YD 1 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Biology Unit, School of Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Nigeria. 2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 3Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. Detarium senegalense is an importance medicinal plant used in North-east Nigeria and some African countries in traditional medicine. This present study evaluated the preliminary phytochemical screening and anthelminthic activity of methanol leaf extract. Phytochemical screening was carried out by solvent-solvent partitioning of leaf extract in chloroform, n-hexane, dioxane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. The results showed that methanol fraction contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and cardiac glycosides while the ethyl acetate fraction contained only flavonoids with no anthracenes. Ethanol fraction demonstrated the highest anthelminthic activity with a decreased time of paralysis and death in the various groups of earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) in dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 30 mg/mL, and 40 mg/mL. The time for paralysis and death for Group VII 400 mg/mL of extract were 5.0 ± 0.3min and 10.0 ± 1.02 min respectively.  This result was compared with that of a standard anthelminthic drug piperazine citrate (USP) whose values were 12 ±1.01 min and 16 ± 1.02 min respectively for time of paralysis and death at p≤0.05 (one-way ANOVA). The results showed that D. senegalense leaf methanol extract possessed anthelminthic activities by osmotic shock at the clitellum portion of the earthworms, and this justifies the use of the plant extract in herbal medicine for the eradication of worms. Keywords: Detarium senegalense, Phytochemicals, Anthelminthic, Earthworms, Piperazine citrate ...

Growth Performance of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, Fed Varying Inclusion Levels of Allium sativum as Feed Additives

Research Article of American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Growth Performance of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, Fed  Varying Inclusion Levels of Allium sativum as Feed Additives Tiamiyu, A. M1, Adedeji, O. B2and Olatoye, I. O3 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo City, Nigeria. 2,3Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Diet supplementation is an important aspect in aquaculture management especially in intensive or in semi-intensive fish culture. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Allium sativum on growth performance of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus fries. Four experimental diets were formulated to include Allium sativum powder at 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, and 3.0% as additives. All the four treatment diets were fed to African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fries over a 70-day period. The result showed a similar (P>0.05) growth responses across the groups. However, the best growth response in body weight gain of 1.44 ± 0.07g, Specific Growth Rate (SGR) of 0.52 ± 0.03g and Feed conversion Ratio (FCR) of 5.60 ± 0.38 was obtained in fish fed 3.0% Allium sativum inclusion level while the best condition factor (K) was observed in fish fed 0.5 % Allium sativum inclusion level. Fish fed 0.0% Allium sativum had the lowest growth response of body weight gain, Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Feed conversion Ratio (FCR) and condition factor of 0.84 ± 0.11g, 0.36 ± 0.03g, 5.77 ± 0.53 and 0.80 ± 0.03 respectively. Garlic inclusion in fish diet at 3.0% (30g/kg) concentration is therefore beneficial for use in aquaculture to enhance growth promotion however a further research is recommended to investigate toxicity of this plant at varying inclusion levels of 0.5% to 3.0% in the Clarias gariepinus culturing to ascertain the best inclusion level. Keywords: African Catfish, Allium sativum, Feed Additive, Growth Performance, Inclusion ...

Dr. Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah
Professor (Assistant), Radiological Science and Medical Imaging Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Majmaah, Saudi Arabia

Dr. Indrasena R Kummetha
University of California San Diego (UCSD), Department of Pediatrics, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0762, BRF-11, Room NO:2220, San Diego, California, 92093, USA

Dr. Ayman EL Sabagh
Assistant professor, agronomy department, faculty of agriculture, kafresheikh university, Egypt; visiting scientist at Field Crops Department ,Faculty of Agriculture , Cukurova University, Turkey

Dr. Moustafa M. Zeitoun
Professor, Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt; Department of Animal Production and Breeding, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University

Dr. Zhiqiang Hou
Senior Research Associate, Center for Alzheimer’s and Neurodegenerative Diseases, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390

Dr. Suban K Sahoo
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Chemistry, S.V. National Institute of Technology (SVNIT) Ichchanath, Surat, Gujrat-395 007, INDIA

Dr. Elsayed Ibrahim Elagamy
Professor of Immunology, Department of Applied Medical Sciences, College of Community (Unaizah), Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Mustafa SEVINDIK
Institute of Science and Technology, Akdeniz University

Dr. Celal Bal
Gaziantep University Oguzeli Vocaitonal School and Higher Education

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1.Lukeman A.J Shittu, Abiodun M Jinadu, Remilekun K. Shittu, Solomon A. Molecular Docking and Pharmacophore-Based Virtual Screening of Novel Inhibitors for HCV NS5B RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Enzyme from Crude Sesame Essential Oil. American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, 2018; 2:7. DOI: 10.28933/ajobb-2018-04-1601 
2.Sumallya Karmakar et al.,. Surveillance of enteric parasites in an infectious diseases hospital, Kolkata, India. American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, 2017; 1:5 . DOI: 10.28933/ajobb-2017-09-2805 

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American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics

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