American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience

Demonstration of pearl millet technology at Raya kobo and Gubalafto districts, North wollo zone

Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.] locally known as “Bajra” is a nutritious course grain cereal. Globally, it is grown on an area of 34.6 million ha with annual production of 28.8 million tons. Demonstration of improved variety kola 1 was conducted in 2016/17 cropping season at Gubalafto and Raya kobo districts to create demand on the pearl millet technology to farmers and development agents and thereby to assess their reactions towards the introduced technology. It was conducted on two FTC’s from kobo and Gubalafto districts. Though all agronomic practices were employed equally at both locations the performance of the variety varies significantly. The variety Kola 1 gave mean grain yield of 3.2 ton/ha and 1.8 ton/ha at Kobo and Hara respectively. The study indicated that cultivating pearl millet in moisture deficit areas can be an alternative for sustaining food security. Farmers have shown great interest and promised to adopt the technology from their neighbor farmers. Therefore technology promotions and popularization on the study and similar agro ecological areas should be carried out in collaboration with stake holders.

Development of Rainfall Runoff Modeling in Matlab Environment

The aim of this study is to understand the basic concept and parameters of rainfall-runoff model, and how that concept applies in model as well. And familiar with how to build/develop the models of rainfall-runoff, with more about the practical situations by considering corresponding different parameters according to the seasonal conditions (for example snowfall in winter season and its role according to the temperature), hydrological conditions of site also. Matlab is used as a tool for the developing this model. This type of models are very much useful to calculate the, how much water will enter in to deeper layers of sub-soil surfaces, when rainfall occurs and to calculate the total amount water losses in different forms (for example evaporation from land and transpiration from vegetation and trees) also. Get good experience while working with Matlab to develop the individual group model and while observing the already given scrip for example model to understand as well. While working with this exercise, got good questions about concept and parameters concerned for model development and had good discussion with in the working group and with available assistance/staff.

Orobanche Species distribution and severity of infested areas in south and north Wollo zones of Amhara region, Ethiopia

Broomrapes (Orobanche species) are obligate holoparasitic flowering plant. Orobanche species are root parasite which can damage the crops underground before the weed emerged. Complete faba bean yield loss by this weed forced farmers to replace faba bean by cereal crops. The distribution of the weed is increasing annually. To obtain relevant information on the introduction and distribution of the weed, survey was conducted on randomly selected 72 farmers’ fields in 12 woredas in two zones, south and north Wollo. Four woredas, Kutaber, Dessie-zuria, Tenta and Mekidela are out of legumes production in south Wollo. In this survey, information was also gathered regarding farmers attitude and local control practices. Farmers practice is hand weeding but Orobanche shoots were emerged again in doubling and tripling. We cannot stop the dissemination of the weed due to the nature of dispersed agents such as wind, flood, farm machinery, crop seeds, animals, humans etc and the undulating features of the areas are all favorable agents to disperse the minute seeds of the parasitic weed and are beyond our capacity to control them, but we may bring a solution by multi-sector approach through developing resistant varieties using molecular breeding and with chemical control measures.

Different statistical methods to collect information about the adverse effects of climatic factors on cotton production

This study investigates the statistical relationship between various climatic factors and overall flower and boll production. Also, predicting effects of climatic factors during different convenient intervals (in days) on cotton flower and boll production compared with daily observations. Further, collects information about the nature of the relationship between various climatic factors and cotton boll development and the 15-day period both prior to and after initiation of individual bolls. And, provide information on the effect of various climatic factors and soil moisture status during the development stage on flower and boll production in cotton. Evaporation, sunshine duration, relative humidity, surface soil temperature at 1800 h, and maximum air temperature, are the important climatic factors that significantly affect flower and boll production. The five-day interval was found to be more adequately and sensibly related to yield parameters. Evaporation; minimum humidity and sunshine duration were the most effective climatic factors during preceding and succeeding periods on boll production and retention. There was a negative correlation between flower and boll production and either evaporation or sunshine duration, while that correlation with minimum relative humidity was positive.

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American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience