American Journal of Chemical Research


Removal of natural organic matter from water using chemically activated coffee husk

Research Article of American Journal of Chemical Research Removal of natural organic matter from water using chemically activated coffee husk Dida Gudeta1,2, Dawit Derese1, Fekadu Fufa1, Bart Van der Bruggen2,3 1Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Jimma University, Ethiopia; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, Belgium;3Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) in source water has posed many challenges for conventional water treatment facilities. Small organic acids, such as humic acid, present in NOM, have a high potential to influence the performance of water treatment processes. Uncontrolled application of agricultural chemicals leads to the simultaneous presence of toxic substances. In this work, batch adsorption experiments were conducted to examine the biosorption of HA onto chemically activated coffee husk. The biosorption process was studied as a function of operating conditions, such as contact time, pH of the solution, HA concentration, adsorbent dose and agitation speed parameters. Experimental results showed that the adsorption has an equilibrium time of 60 min with a maximum adsorption of 93.7%. The optimum pH for maximum HA adsorption was found to be 5.5, with a maximum adsorption of 94.3%. . As the dose of adsorbent increased from 1 to 25 g/L, the concentration of HA was observed to reduce from 10 to 1.67 mg/L which is below the WHO (World Health Organization) guideline value of 2 mg/L. The amount of HA adsorbed increased with increasing the initial adsorbent concentration from 0.5 to 20 mg/L. The adsorption kinetics well fitted the pseudo-second order model with the correlation coefficient R2 = 0.997 and Ks = 0.078. The experimental sorption equilibrium can be represented by the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.998, SSE = 0.006). An average desorption capacity of 87.3% was observed ...

Synthesis of Waste Frying Oil and Trimethylolpropane Based Lubricant Basestocks

Research Article of American Journal of Chemical Research Synthesis of Waste Frying Oil and Trimethylolpropane Based Lubricant Basestocks Norliza Julmohammad1,2*, Jumat Salimon3 1Faculty of Food Science & Nutrition, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. 2,3School of Chemical Sciences & Food Technology, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Research on waste frying oil based lubricant base stocks production and trimethylolpropane (TMP) was investigated. Quality parameters were tested for the waste frying oil. The hydrolysis process was conducted to extract the free fatty acid from waste frying oil. TMP ester was produced via reaction between free fatty acids of waste frying oil and TMP at 130-140°C, for 5 hours with acid-catalyzed condition. Modification of TMP ester by epoxidation reaction followed by ring-opening reaction using a medium branch chain alcohol; 2-ethylhexanol. The TMP ester was reacted with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid at 45-55°C for 2½ hours during epoxidation process. Epoxidized TMP ester was reacted with 2-ethylhexanol in mol ratio of 1:2 to produce ether ester TMP. Concentrated sulphuric acid was used as a catalyst during ring opening and esterification processes. Ether ester TMP functional groups and chemical structure were identified using FTIR and NMR, respectively. Confirmation with FTIR has indicated sharp peak at 1742 cm-¹, proved the existence of ester group which confirmed the TMP ester formation during esterification and broad peak of 3456 cm-1 during ring opening indicated the formation of ether ester TMP. In ¹H NMR analysis, the signal of methylene proton in which the carbon attached to ether esters TMP existed at 4.0-4.1 ppm and for 13C NMR, the carbonyl ester signals existed in the range of 174.1 ppm. Several analyses were conducted on the ether ester TMP base stock such as hydroxyl value, viscosity value, pour point ...

Synthesis, Characterization and catalytic activity of Palladium-Based Metallodendrimer with Triazine

Research Article of American Journal of Chemical Research Synthesis, Characterization and catalytic activity of Palladium-Based Metallodendrimer with Triazine Md. Sayedul Islam1* and Md. Wahab Khan2 1,2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh A novel Pd-based metallodendrimer has been directly prepared by the reaction of substituted triazine with substituted benzoyl chloride in good yields using (Ph3P)2PdCl2 and DMF at 70 oC. This procedure avoids the use of high temperature and severe reaction conditions. The surface morphology like as entangled nanofibers from SEM image and the presence of Palladium ions of the compound from EDX analysis were obtained in addition TG and DSC showed the good thermal stability of the compound. This white solid compound was found to be an effective homogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of ynones in where the synthetic route was copper and phosphine ligand-free. Keywords: Triazine, substituted benzoyl chloride, Ynones, Dendrimers, Metallodendrimers ...

Chemo-Remediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soils Obtained from Recent Polluted Site in Oil Producing Environs in Rivers State Nigeria

Research Article of American Journal of Chemical Research Chemo-Remediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soils Obtained from Recent Polluted Site in Oil Producing Environs in Rivers State Nigeria Iwu Irenus Chinonye, Onu Uchenna Lynda, Amarachi Nkwoada, Onwumere Fidelis Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri Nigeria The chemo- remediation of crude oil polluted soils from recent pollution sites in oil producing environs in River state was carried out by both in vivo and in vitro methods using macro-soil nutrients ( Nitrate, Phosphate and Potassium) as index for remediation. The soil samples were labeled A, B, C, D1 to D6, sample A was obtained from pollution free site used as a control. Sample C was crude oil polluted soil not treated with surfactant, sample B was crude oil polluted soil leached with surfactant and not mineralized. Samples D1-D6 were polluted soil samples, leached with surfactant and mineralized with fertilizer. The samples were leached with linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LABS) and later mineralized with Nitrate, Phosphate and Potassium (N.P.K) fertilizer and returned to the site of excavation to fallow for four months. The samples were later re-excavated and taken to the laboratory for analysis. Nitrate and phosphate contents were obtained with the aid of spectrum lab 725 UV visible spectrophotometer and potassium content was determined by use of a flame photometer. Results showed that sample A had nitrate concentration of 330ppm, sample B had concentration of 21ppm, sample C had a concentration of 54ppm while samples D-D6 had concentrations ranging from300ppm to 420ppm.Similarly, The phosphate concentrations were 68.50ppm, 17.00ppn, 28.00ppm and 48.80-136.40ppm for sample A, B, C.D1-D6 respectively. The potassium concentrations were not different as concentrations of 46ppm, 12ppm, 28ppm and 38ppm-64ppm was recorded for samples A, B, C, and D1-D6 respectively. These results revealed that crude oils not only renders soils ...

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American journal of chemical research

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