American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews

Role of Geospatial technology in Crime Mapping: A case study of Jharkhand state of India

Research Article of American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews Role of Geospatial technology in Crime Mapping: A case study of Jharkhand state of India Firoz Ahmad 1*, Md Meraj Uddin2, Laxmi Goparaju1 1Vindhyan Ecology and Natural History Foundation, Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, India. 2University Department of Mathematics, MCA, Ranchi University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India Crime is a social stigma which needs to be addressed beyond talks. In developed country Geospatial technology has become well established within the criminology and forensic fields in recent past. In order to achieve this proper database of various crimes (state/ district level) should be available for decision making. The present study was an attempt made to study the district wise crime data (IPC crime registered) for murder, rape, kidnapping, dacoity, burglary, theft and riots of state of Jharkhand for the year 2013 to understand the crime trend. We have generated various maps including crime density map of Jharkhand based on crime types using ARC/ GIS Software and MS EXCEL. The crime density such as murder, rape, kidnaping and riots were found in the range of (2.2 to 17.8), (1.6 to 12.6), (2.3 to 10.4) and (1.0 to 17.5) respectively. Murder crime density was highest in Gumla district whereas it was found to be lowest in Gridih district. Sahebganj district has high crime density for rape and kidnapping. Palamu district had low crime density in rape, whereas Ranchi district recorded low crime density in kidnapping. Crime density for riots was found lowest for district Simdega whereas highest for Koderma. The Indian police and law enforcement departments has not yet exploited the GIS aspect which will fetch better result as far as crime control is considered. Keywords: Crime Analysis, Geographical Information Systems, Crime Mapping, Jharkhand ...

Evaluation of Seasonal Streamflow Forecasting

Research Article of American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews Evaluation of Seasonal Streamflow Forecasting Shailesh Kumar Singh National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Christchurch, New Zealand Long-term streamflow forecasts are essential for optimal management of water resources for various demands, including irrigation, fisheries management, hydropower production and flood warning. In this paper, a probabilistic forecast framework based on Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) technique is presented, with the basic assumption that future weather patterns will reflect those experienced historically. Hence, past forcing data (input to hydrological model) can be used with the current initial condition of a catchment to generate an ensemble of flow predictions. The present study employs the ESP-based approach using the TopNet hydrological model. The objective of this present paper is to evaluate and assess the uncertainty due to initial condition of the catchments and forcing (meteorological input to the model) data for (ESP) based streamflow forecasting using the TopNet hydrological model in New Zealand catchments. An ensemble of streamflow predictions which provide probabilistic hydrological forecasts, reflecting the intrinsic uncertainty in climate, with lead time up to three months is presented for the four catchments on New Zealand’s South Island. Verification of the forecast over the period 2000-2010 indicates a Ranked Probability Skill Score of 23% to 69% (over climatology) across the four catchments. In general, improvement in ESP forecasting skill over climatology is greatest in summer for all catchments studied. The major uncertainty associated with ESP forecast is combination of uncertainty due to initial state and climate forcing. The analysis indicates that the sensitivity of flow forecast to initial condition uncertainty depends on the hydrological regime experienced by the basin during the forecast period. On average, the relative importance of initial condition is greatest within two weeks to months of the start of the simulation for ...

From Micro- to Satellite Gravity: Understanding the Earth

Research Article of American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews From Micro- to Satellite Gravity: Understanding the Earth Lev V. Eppelbaum School of Geosciences, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 6997801, Tel Aviv, Israel The main physical principle of gravity method application is the difference in densities between the various geological, environmental, archaeological and other targets and host media. Gravity is one of the oldest geophysical methods and it is widely applied for knowledge of subsurface and deep Earth's domains. The present review displays multiscale examples of gravity field examination: from very detailed (delineation of karst terranes and archaeological targets) to regional investigations (development of 3D physical-geological models and satellite data examination of giant regions). Geographically the examined areas include the South Caucasus, the Dead Sea region, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Arabian-African region. Diverse methodologies of the gravity data processing, qualitative and quantitative interpretation, and results of 3D gravity field modeling are shown. It is demonstrated that integration of gravity field analysis with other geophysical methods (magnetic, paleomagnetic, thermal, seismic, etc.) significantly increases accuracy and reliability of developed physical-geological models. The further ways of evaluation of gravity data analysis are considered. Keywords: gravity noise, gravity field transformations, quantitative analysis, 3D gravity models, South Caucasus, Eastern Mediterranean, Arabian-African region, subsurface targets, regional reconstructions ...

Remote Sensing and GIS Assessment of a Typical African Urban City: A Case Study of Ibadan, Nigeria

Research Article of American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews Remote Sensing and GIS Assessment of a Typical African Urban City: A Case Study of Ibadan, Nigeriadistrict Williams W. Edobor1, Innocent E. Bello2 1Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Faculty of Social Sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria 2National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), PMB 437 Garki 2, Airport Road, FCT-Abuja, Nigeria Ibadan, a typical West African City, emerged from a traditional rural land use as a result of its socio-economic, educational, traditional and political uses. The perceived rapid growth of the now peripheral areas from the core Central Business District (CBD) tends to undermine a regimented planned land use system and as such constituting a menace to government zoning plans. This paper, therefore, synthesizes three epochs remotely sensed satellite images: 1972 Landsat (MSS), 1986 Landsat Thematic Mapping(TM) and 2000 Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) obtained from the USGS glcf website to examine the observed changes in land cover and land use pattern as well as urban growth process in Ibadan. GIS and remote sensing methods were used for image-processing, classification, and results from analyses. The study showed that in 1972, the buildup was 107 km2, it increased to 192 km2 in 1986 and almost doubled in 2000 (381 km2). The 2010 projection was 760 km2 and it is projected to 1520 km2 in 2020. The study further indicates that the city follows a trend of doubling in area size at least in every ten years. Decongesting the CBD through the provision of social amenities in the proximal urban fringes and rural areas are considered the most potent ways to remedy the seemingly urban menace Keywords: GIS, Landcover/Landuse, Remotely Sensed Imageries, Rural-Urban, Urban Growth ...

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American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews