American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews


Theoretical Framework And Its Relevance To Geographic Studies: An Application Of Innovation Diffusion Theory In CWM

Research Article of American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews Theoretical Framework And Its Relevance To Geographic Studies: An Application Of Innovation Diffusion Theory In CWM Innocent E. Bello 1* and Matthew E. Ufuah 2 1National Space Research and Development Agency, PMB 437 Garki 2, FCT- Abuja, Nigeria 2Ambrose Alli University, PMB 14 Ekpoma Edo State, Nigeria This paper examines the meaning of concept, theory and theoretical framework and their relevance in geographic studies. In particular, the paper discussed the rationale behind the formulation and application of theoretical framework in carrying out a reliable geographic study. A categorical distinction in the use of ‘concept’ and ‘theory’ interchangeably was established and it was reiterated that every science has a goal, especially in the understanding and explanation of the real world phenomena. The paper also reiterated that although geography is short on theories and long on facts, yet development of theory seems to be vital both to satisfactory explanations and to the identification of geography as an independent field of study. An empirical application of innovation diffusion theory in geographic study (collaborative web mapping – CWM) is presented. The paper concludes that, like the human body, a theoretical framework plays a central role in geographic studies because it is the skeleton on which principles, methods and overall research goals are hinged. Keywords: Concept, Geographic Studies, Theory, Theoretical Framework ...

Role of Geospatial technology in Crime Mapping: A case study of Jharkhand state of India

Research Article of American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews Role of Geospatial technology in Crime Mapping: A case study of Jharkhand state of India Firoz Ahmad 1*, Md Meraj Uddin2, Laxmi Goparaju1 1Vindhyan Ecology and Natural History Foundation, Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, India. 2University Department of Mathematics, MCA, Ranchi University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India Crime is a social stigma which needs to be addressed beyond talks. In developed country Geospatial technology has become well established within the criminology and forensic fields in recent past. In order to achieve this proper database of various crimes (state/ district level) should be available for decision making. The present study was an attempt made to study the district wise crime data (IPC crime registered) for murder, rape, kidnapping, dacoity, burglary, theft and riots of state of Jharkhand for the year 2013 to understand the crime trend. We have generated various maps including crime density map of Jharkhand based on crime types using ARC/ GIS Software and MS EXCEL. The crime density such as murder, rape, kidnaping and riots were found in the range of (2.2 to 17.8), (1.6 to 12.6), (2.3 to 10.4) and (1.0 to 17.5) respectively. Murder crime density was highest in Gumla district whereas it was found to be lowest in Gridih district. Sahebganj district has high crime density for rape and kidnapping. Palamu district had low crime density in rape, whereas Ranchi district recorded low crime density in kidnapping. Crime density for riots was found lowest for district Simdega whereas highest for Koderma. The Indian police and law enforcement departments has not yet exploited the GIS aspect which will fetch better result as far as crime control is considered. Keywords: Crime Analysis, Geographical Information Systems, Crime Mapping, Jharkhand ...

Evaluation of Seasonal Streamflow Forecasting

Research Article of American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews Evaluation of Seasonal Streamflow Forecasting Shailesh Kumar Singh National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Christchurch, New Zealand Long-term streamflow forecasts are essential for optimal management of water resources for various demands, including irrigation, fisheries management, hydropower production and flood warning. In this paper, a probabilistic forecast framework based on Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) technique is presented, with the basic assumption that future weather patterns will reflect those experienced historically. Hence, past forcing data (input to hydrological model) can be used with the current initial condition of a catchment to generate an ensemble of flow predictions. The present study employs the ESP-based approach using the TopNet hydrological model. The objective of this present paper is to evaluate and assess the uncertainty due to initial condition of the catchments and forcing (meteorological input to the model) data for (ESP) based streamflow forecasting using the TopNet hydrological model in New Zealand catchments. An ensemble of streamflow predictions which provide probabilistic hydrological forecasts, reflecting the intrinsic uncertainty in climate, with lead time up to three months is presented for the four catchments on New Zealand’s South Island. Verification of the forecast over the period 2000-2010 indicates a Ranked Probability Skill Score of 23% to 69% (over climatology) across the four catchments. In general, improvement in ESP forecasting skill over climatology is greatest in summer for all catchments studied. The major uncertainty associated with ESP forecast is combination of uncertainty due to initial state and climate forcing. The analysis indicates that the sensitivity of flow forecast to initial condition uncertainty depends on the hydrological regime experienced by the basin during the forecast period. On average, the relative importance of initial condition is greatest within two weeks to months of the start of the simulation for ...

From Micro- to Satellite Gravity: Understanding the Earth

Research Article of American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews From Micro- to Satellite Gravity: Understanding the Earth Lev V. Eppelbaum School of Geosciences, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 6997801, Tel Aviv, Israel The main physical principle of gravity method application is the difference in densities between the various geological, environmental, archaeological and other targets and host media. Gravity is one of the oldest geophysical methods and it is widely applied for knowledge of subsurface and deep Earth's domains. The present review displays multiscale examples of gravity field examination: from very detailed (delineation of karst terranes and archaeological targets) to regional investigations (development of 3D physical-geological models and satellite data examination of giant regions). Geographically the examined areas include the South Caucasus, the Dead Sea region, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Arabian-African region. Diverse methodologies of the gravity data processing, qualitative and quantitative interpretation, and results of 3D gravity field modeling are shown. It is demonstrated that integration of gravity field analysis with other geophysical methods (magnetic, paleomagnetic, thermal, seismic, etc.) significantly increases accuracy and reliability of developed physical-geological models. The further ways of evaluation of gravity data analysis are considered. Keywords: gravity noise, gravity field transformations, quantitative analysis, 3D gravity models, South Caucasus, Eastern Mediterranean, Arabian-African region, subsurface targets, regional reconstructions ...

Professor Dr. M. Jayachandran
Chief Scientist & Professor of AcSIR, CSIR-New Delhi; Head, Electrochemical Materials Science Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi

Prof. Dr. Gehad Mohamed Saleh
Professor of Geology, Vice Head of Research Sector of Geology, Supervisor Abu Rasheid – Halayib project, Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

Dr. Shailesh Kumar Singh
Hydrologist, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd. 10 Kyle street, Riccarton Christchurch, New Zealand

Dr. Suhaib Bin Farhan
Pakistan Space & Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO)

Professor Lev V. Eppelbaum
Research Professor, Dept. of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Chairman of KAMEA Assoc. at TAU, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv, Israel, Foreign Member of the Russian, Academy of Natural Sciences

Dr. D. Madan
Associate Professor, Dept of Mech, Sri indu college of engineering and technology, Hyderabad

Dr. Alexander Kokhanovsky
VITROCISET, Darmstadt, Germany

Dr. Daniel Anthoni Sihasale
Pattimura University

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American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews

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