American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology


The effect of Transfer Factor as Immunotherapy comparing with the effect of BCG in Mice challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Research Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology The effect of Transfer Factor as Immunotherapy comparing with the effect of BCG in Mice challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Jamal Bayed Salim.1,Ahmed K. Bolad2, Hamid Suliman A..2 andss Mujeeb A.Kabbashi3 1- Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and health Sciences, University of Kassala, Kassala, Sudan 2- Al- Neelain University, Faculty of Medicine 2- University of Khartoum, Faculty of Medicine 3-Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Sciences &Technology, Khartoum, Sudan Background: Transfer Factor (TF) is an immune modulator which stimulates the cellular arm of the immune system (killer lymphocytes), activates immune cytokine synthesis and regulates immune function (Lawrence, 1955).TF is very effective in those diseases in which CMI plays a relevant role in protection and control of the disease, such as intracellular bacterial diseases (tuberculosis). ( Estrada Parra, et al1955). TF are low molecular weight products from immune cells that are able to transmit the ability to express delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and cell mediated immunity (CMI) from sensitized donors to non immune recipients (Kirkpatrick, 2000). Objectives: The aim of this experimental study is to determine the protective efficacy of transfer factor (TF)  as immunotherapy for mice in comparison to BCG. Materials and methods: A total number of 102 mice were examined  for their immunopotency and protective efficacy of Transfer factor (TF)  comparing to the protective efficacy  of BCG single and second repeated dose against challenge dose of M. tuberculosis (107 CFU) . A number of 20 mice were immunize with the attenuated strain of M. bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). After 21 days of BCG spleens of 10 tuberculous mice were removed aseptically for the preparation of TF. To evaluate the effect of TF 3 groups of inbred BALB/c male mice were injected with TF and challenged with virulent M ...

Breast Cancer and Herbal Treatment

Review Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Breast Cancer and Herbal Treatment Author-Jyotsna A Saonere (Suryawanshi) Lecturer in Pharmacy Govt.Polytechnic, Department of Pharmacy,Amravati (M.S.India) All around the world about1.7 millions of females are resulted with breast cancer and arround 522,000 deaths. Which is more common in developed countries than the developing ones. Breast cancer mostly occurs in cells from the lining of milk ducts and the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Symptoms of Breast cancer includes a lump in the breast, dimpling of skin, change in shape of breast, fluids coming from nipple. Risk factor for development of breast cancer includes age, sex, obesity, lack of physical exercise, alcohol consumption, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, exposure to ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation, and family history. Breast cancer is the most serious health problem in developed countries, proper diet, exercise and healthy life style can reduces the risk of breast cancer. Surgery and chemotherapy are the treatment for breast cancer, as chemotherapy has many side effects 50% weakness occurs due to cancer and 50% weakness occurs due to chemotherapy, hence herbal drugs or herbal treatment is the best option for breast cancer. Number of herbal drugs are effective in breast cancer In this study detailed study of the herbal drug used in breast cancer is discussed in detail. Keywords: Hormone,chemotherapy,dimpling,menopause,obesity ...

Elevated Serum Procalcitonin an Adjunct for Early detection of Infant Tuberculosis in Paediatric HIV/AIDS

Review Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Elevated Serum Procalcitonin an Adjunct for Early detection of Infant Tuberculosis in Paediatric HIV/AIDS Ibeh Isaiah Nnanna Health Services Department, University of Benin, Benin city PMB 1154 In countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a frequent cause of acquired pneumonia (AP) amongst people living with HIV/AIDS and the differential and early diagnosis of TB from common bacterial pneumonia is difficult. The varying clinical and radiographic presentation of Acquired Pneumonia and Tuberculosis according to patient age and comorbidity and the low sensitivity of acid-fast bacillus microscopy make it even more difficult to distinguish TB from common bacterial pneumonia. Therefore, an adjunct diagnostic method that can determine early pulmonary tuberculosis in infants living with HIV/AIDS in order to differentiate it from other bacterial pathogens causing acquired pneumonia. Although a confirmatory microscopy test for Tuberculosis detection was carried out which would have a clinical role in terms of isolating patients with TB and administering appropriate anti-TB medication or antibiotic treatment at an early stage. The use of serum procalcitonin (PCT) for early detection of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) from infants with paediatric HIV/AIDS in Adamawa state, Nigeria a country with an intermediate TB burden and one with the highest number of people living with HIV/IADS in West-Africa. A prospective study, enrolling 50 infants with paediatric HIV/AIDs with suspected Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a community-based referral hospital. A clinical assessment was performed before treatment, serum and PCT were measured. The test results were compared to the final diagnoses 50 patients, 35 had Pulmonary Tuberculosis and 15 had bacterial associated pneumonia TB. The median PCT level was 0.564 ng/mL (range, 0.01 to 27.75) with bacterial acquired pneumonia and 0.044 ng/mL (range, 0.01 to 0.87) with pulmonary TB (p<0.001). No difference was detected in the ...

Heamatologic Indices and Anti-Spermatogenic Effects of Dietary Supplemented Carica papaya seeds on Wister Rats

Review Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Heamatologic Indices and Anti-Spermatogenic Effects of Dietary Supplemented Carica papaya seeds on Wister Rats Ibeh Nnanna Isaiah1 ( BMLS, AMLSCN, MGHT),  Unuabonah Uyi Ibhoje2 ( BSC,MSc)  *1University of Benin Health Services Department, University of Benin PMB 1154 2University of Ibadan, Faculty of Life Science, Department of Microbiology The continuous usage of indegienious plants as an intervention tool for diseases that affect both humans and animals is as old as orthodox medicine in its self in this study we evaluated the overall effect of carica papaya seeds extract on wister rats to determine its heamatoligic stimulatory effect and the anti-spermatic effect. A total of eighty rats where orally administered the various doses of the extract over a period of time and the heamatoligic and spermatologic parameters where analyzed. From the results obtained there was a slight stimulatory effects as the total white blood cell increased according to the varying doses of 100mg and 200mg respectively (6.56±0.38 and 6.96±0.10) with mean packed cell volume of 38.0±0.84 and 37.4±1.03 also noticeable is the slight rise in the Lymphocytes from the control group to the varying doses of exposure 70±2.06 and 68.6±1.12, the total Sperm cell count across the varying doses where 11.6x106 +0.5cells/mm3 and 11.3x106 +0.5cells/mm3 respectively. The above showed a a little marked increase the heamatologic parameters there was a slight increase in the lymphocyte although there was a marked decrease of sperm cell count from the control down the doses of exposure. Keywords: Heamatologic, Anti-spermatogenic, Lymphocyte, White blood cell ...

Observed variations of Plasma Procalcitonin Amonsgt Sexually Active Males With Suspected Bacterial-Urogenital Infection In Yola Metropolis

Review Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Observed variations of Plasma Procalcitonin Amonsgt Sexually Active Males With Suspected Bacterial-Urogenital Infection In Yola Metropolis Ibeh N.Isaiah1, Omobogie E. NORAH 1Department of Health Services, University of Benin PMB 1154 Background: Male urogenital infection in Nigeria has increased due to alarming rise of unprotected sex amongst the sexually active males in Nigeria. Most of these case leads to a limiting advanced disease state such as kidney infections, bacteropsermia/infertility and reinal failure. AIM: To study the elevated serum Procalcitonin levels on patients with bacterial urogenital infections as an adjunct of bacterial-fungi-viral urogenital infections for diagnosis/prognosis and antimicrobial monitoring. PATIENTS and METHODS: The study group cut across adults from the ages of 20 years and above, 40 males who were suspected to have urogenital infection and 40 who were confirmed cases of urogenital infections those with suspected urogenital infections and those with confirmed urogenital infections. Using standard microbiological techniques urine and urethral swabs were taking and proper cultural techniques were carried out to isolate the bacterial/Fungi origin of infection, blood samples were collected from patients with suspected and confirmed urogenital infections for further analysis of the Procalcitonin ratio. RESULT: a total of 40 suspected males with signs and symptoms of urogenital infections where included in this study, a microbiological analysis was carried out on MSU(midstream urine clean catch) and urethral swab, and seminal fluid analysis, 40% yielded growth of gram Staphylococcus aureus and CoNs, 22.5% yielded growths of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Acinectobacter spp, Klebseilla oxytoca while 15% had fungi/Parasitic origins,( Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis) 22.5% showed no significant growth. The mean PCT ratio across the infectious agents were, bacterial origin ( 0.4-1.1 CI 0.34-0.62) fungi/parasitic origin (0.3-1.0 CI 0.28-0.56) Conclussion: although there was no remarkable difference between the confirmed cases of ...

Dr. Aziza Mahrous Mohamed Amer
Dean and Professor of pharmacology Department of Pharmacology – Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University.; Fellow of National Academy of Science and Technology 2016; Member of Drug Council Academy of Science and Technology 2016

Dr. Pongsak Rattanachaikunsopon
Professor, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190, Thailand

Dr. Ying-Yu Jin
Head of Fermentation Team, Center for Nutraceutical and Pharmaceutical Materials, Yongin, Korea; Research Professor, Department of Biomodulation, Myongji University, Yongin, Korea.

Dr. Helen Treichel
Professor, Researcher, Deputy Coordinator of Research and Graduate Studies and Coordinator of the Graduate Program, Environmental Science and Technology at Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS) – Campus Erechim

Dr. Liesel Brenda Gende
Professor of Food Microbiology and Food Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Science, Mar del Plata University, Buenos Aires-Argentina. Researcher at CONICET (National Council of Scientific and Technical Research of Argentina). Fellow of the Research Center on Social Bees. Specialty in apicultural microbiology.

Dr. Akrum Hamdy 
Prof. Poultry Physiology, Department Head of Animal and Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Egypt, Fellow Academy Scientific Research and Technology

Dr. Mohamed Hamed Mohamed Al-Agamy
Professor, Microbiology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Aditi Singh
Associate Professor, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity Univesity Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow Campus, Malhaur, Gomti Nagar Extension, Lucknow-226028.

Dr. Kantha Deivi Arunachalam 
Professor and Head, Centre for Environmental Nuclear Research, Directorate of Research & Virtual Education, SRM University, Chennai, Tamilnadu., India.

Profa. Dra. Fabiana América Souza 
Universidade de Pernambuco – UPE (Campus Mata Norte), Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco – UFRPE, Universidade do Minho – UMinho/Portugal, Fundação de Ensino Superior de Olinda – FUNESO.

Dr.  Parichat Phumkhachorn
Assistant Professor, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190, THAILAND

Dr. Bamidele RAHEEM 
Researcher, Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Dr. Iran ALEMZADEH
Professor, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9468, Tehran IRAN.

Dr. Younes Smani
Clinical Unit of Infectious Diseases, Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Infectious Diseases Research Group, University of Seville/CSIC/University Hospitals Virgen del Rocio and Virgen Macarena, Seville, Spain.

Dr. Surabhi Mishra
Resarch Scientist, Dept. of Microbiology, University of Iowa, IA – 52242

Dr. Elsayed Ibrahim Elagamy
Professor of Immunology, Department of Applied Medical Sciences, College of Community (Unaizah), Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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1.Ibeh Isaiah Nnanna. Elevated Serum Procalcitonin an Adjunct for Early detection of Infant Tuberculosis in Paediatric HIV/AIDS. American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology, 2016,1:8. DOI: 10.28933/nnanna-ajmi-10-2016 

2.Jamal Bayed Salim.,Ahmed K. Bolad, Hamid Suliman A.. andss Mujeeb A.Kabbashi. The effect of Transfer Factor as Immunotherapy comparing with the effect of BCG in Mice challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology, 2017; 2:1. DOI: 10.28933/ajmi-2017-02-2801 

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American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology

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