American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology


Research Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology RIPARIN II POSSES ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECT AND REDUCES NEUROINFLAMATION IN MICE SUBMITTED TO CHRONIC UNPREDICTABLE MILD STRESS Alana Gomes de Souza1 *, Iardja Stéfane Lopes Sales1, José Tiago Valentim1, Dilailson Carlos Costa Júnior1, Francisca Cléa Florenço de Sousa1, Marta Maria de França Fonteles1 1Federal University of Ceará. Introduction: Depression is a common and disabling disorder and stress is considered one of the main factors involved in its etiology. Many patients treated with conventional antidepressants do not respond adequately to treatment, so the development of new drugs is relevant. Objective: To evaluate the effect of riparin II on the immobility time in the forced swimming test and on the cytokines’ levels in the hippocampus of mice submitted to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress. Methods: Male mice (19-25g) were divided into three groups: control(1), stressed(2), stressed+riparin II(3) and stressed+fluoxetine(4). Groups 2, 3 and 4 were subjected to 28 days of exposure to unpredictably applied stressors. From the 14th day, groups 2 and 3 were treated with riparin II and fluoxetine, respectively (oral). On the 28th day, the animals were euthanized and the brain areas were removed for the measurement of cytokines (Interceucin1-β and Tumor Necrosis Factor). Results: Immobility time and cytokine levels were increased by chronic stress, compared to control animals. Treatment with riparin II decreased these parameters, compared to the stressed group. [Forced Swimming: F (3, 30)= 15.80; 1vs2: p=0.0002, 2vs3: p=0.0002, 2vs4: p<0.0001; Interleukin1-β: F (3, 27)= 32.07; 1vs2: p<0.0001, 2vs3: p<0.0001, 2vs4: p=0.0111; Tumor Necrosis Factor: F (3, 28)= 18.91; 1vs2: p<0.0001, 2vs3: p=0.0008, 2vs4: p=0.0491]. Conclusion: Riparin II has antidepressant-like effect in mice, which may have as mechanism the reducing neuroinflammation, thus showing itself as a promising substance for further studies in the treatment of depressive disorders. Keywords: Chronic stress, Depression, ...


Research Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Antimicrobial Properties of Prosopis cineraria stem bark Saif Al Ghais, Vibha Bhardwaj*, Pramod Kumbhar Environment Sustainability, Department Environment Protection & Development Authority (EPDA), Ras Al Khaimah, UAE Infectious diseases are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Nowadays, medicinal plants play a major role in treatment of infectious diseases and they are easily available and more affordable as compared to synthetic compounds. The emerging trends of multidrug resistance among several groups of microorganisms against different classes of antibiotics led different researchers to develop efficient drugs from plant sources to counter multidrug resistant strains. This study investigated two different concentration of methanol extracts of stem bark of Prosopis cineraria to determine their efficacy against multidrug resistant microbes. Powdered barks of the tree were treated with methanol using hot extraction method. Crude methanol extracts of the bark of P. cineraria was investigated for their antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria (both gram-positive and gram-negative) by disc diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin was used as standard. Multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), E. coli (ATCC 8739), Salmonella enterica (ATCC 14028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) were used in the study. The methanolic bark extracts of P. cineraria showed a remarkable inhibition of the microorganisms. The potency shown by these extracts recommends their use against multidrug resistant microorganisms. The present study suggests that the methanol extract of the stem bark of P. cineraria exhibited a potential antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms and could be a potential source of new antimicrobial agents. Keywords:  Prosopis cineraria, antibacterial, ciprofloxacin, bark, microorganisms ...


Research Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in Greek swine farms Dimitrios Papadopoulos1, Evanthia Petridou1, (†) Georgios Filioussis1, Theofilos Papadopoulos1, Konstantinos Papageorgiou1, Maria Chatzistilianou2, Spyridon K. Kritas1 1Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Clinic of  Pediatrics-Immunology and Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Campylobacter species are one of four key global causes of human diarrheal diseases, according to W.H.O. It is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the world. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter coli (C. coli) and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) in Greek commercial swine farms, and describe the antimicrobial resistance of the isolated strains. A total of 1,000 rectal swabs (50 per farm) were collected from twenty swine farms in Greece. Ten rectal samples had been randomly collected from each of five age-groups (suckling piglets, nursery pigs, grower pigs, finisher pigs, sows). Isolation of Campylobacter spp. was performed using the ISO 10272-1:2017. A PCR method, based on the amplification of mapAC.jejuni and ceuEC.coli specific genes, was used for identification of the isolated strains. All isolates were tested for their susceptibility against gentamycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and meropenem; EUCAST guidelines were used for the interpretation. The results showed that 16 out of the 20 farms (80%) and 491 (49%) of the samples were positive for Campylobacter spp.  Prevalence of C.coli was 38% (95% CI 35.1-41.1) and of C.jejuni 10.9% (95% CI 9,1-13.0).  Sows were 1.4 times more likely to be colonized by Campylobacter spp than sucking piglets (p<0.05) while nursery and grower pigs were 2.14 and 2 times more likely to ...


Research Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Current practices in Greek broiler farms as related to the technical status of the establishments and equipment A. Xexaki1*, E.N. Sossidou2, G. Filiousis1 and E. Petridou1 1Aristotle University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece, 2Hellenic Agricultural Organization-DEMETER, Veterinary Research Institute, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece. The aim of this study was to describe breeding and managerial practices performed in two main categories of broiler farms as related to their technical status i.e. years of functioning, facilities, equipment, etc. One hundred thirty two farms, randomly selected, sited in regions which represent more than 70% of the Greek broiler production were examined. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data by personal interviews with the farm managers including biosecurity measures, harvesting system, feeding and watering method, staff, microclimate in broiler house, antimicrobial therapy and information about the establishment and equipment of the farm as well as the genotype, age and population of the flock. First results indicate that biosecurity measures in farms in good technical status perceive more importance (presence of anteroom and foot bath, P≤0.05) than farms in bad status. Moreover, 93.3% of the farms in bad technical status use straw as bedding material in contrast with the 28.2 % of the farms in good status where rice hulls is used (P≤0.05). Both categories of farms rear Ross genotype while Cobb genotype is only reared in farms in good technical status (P≤0.05). Finally, water equipment differs significantly (P≤0.05) between the two farm categories. Nipple drinkers without a tray is used by 40.4% of the farms in good technical status while 58.3% the farms in low level of hygiene have water equipment with nipple drinkers with tray. This study presents preliminary results of a PhD thesis in progress ...

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American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology