American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology

Breast Cancer and Herbal Treatment

Review Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Breast Cancer and Herbal Treatment Author-Jyotsna A Saonere (Suryawanshi) Lecturer in Pharmacy Govt.Polytechnic, Department of Pharmacy,Amravati (M.S.India) All around the world about1.7 millions of females are resulted with breast cancer and arround 522,000 deaths. Which is more common in developed countries than the developing ones. Breast cancer mostly occurs in cells from the lining of milk ducts and the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Symptoms of Breast cancer includes a lump in the breast, dimpling of skin, change in shape of breast, fluids coming from nipple. Risk factor for development of breast cancer includes age, sex, obesity, lack of physical exercise, alcohol consumption, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, exposure to ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation, and family history. Breast cancer is the most serious health problem in developed countries, proper diet, exercise and healthy life style can reduces the risk of breast cancer. Surgery and chemotherapy are the treatment for breast cancer, as chemotherapy has many side effects 50% weakness occurs due to cancer and 50% weakness occurs due to chemotherapy, hence herbal drugs or herbal treatment is the best option for breast cancer. Number of herbal drugs are effective in breast cancer In this study detailed study of the herbal drug used in breast cancer is discussed in detail. Keywords: Hormone,chemotherapy,dimpling,menopause,obesity ...

Elevated Serum Procalcitonin an Adjunct for Early detection of Infant Tuberculosis in Paediatric HIV/AIDS

Review Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Elevated Serum Procalcitonin an Adjunct for Early detection of Infant Tuberculosis in Paediatric HIV/AIDS Ibeh Isaiah Nnanna Health Services Department, University of Benin, Benin city PMB 1154 In countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a frequent cause of acquired pneumonia (AP) amongst people living with HIV/AIDS and the differential and early diagnosis of TB from common bacterial pneumonia is difficult. The varying clinical and radiographic presentation of Acquired Pneumonia and Tuberculosis according to patient age and comorbidity and the low sensitivity of acid-fast bacillus microscopy make it even more difficult to distinguish TB from common bacterial pneumonia. Therefore, an adjunct diagnostic method that can determine early pulmonary tuberculosis in infants living with HIV/AIDS in order to differentiate it from other bacterial pathogens causing acquired pneumonia. Although a confirmatory microscopy test for Tuberculosis detection was carried out which would have a clinical role in terms of isolating patients with TB and administering appropriate anti-TB medication or antibiotic treatment at an early stage. The use of serum procalcitonin (PCT) for early detection of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) from infants with paediatric HIV/AIDS in Adamawa state, Nigeria a country with an intermediate TB burden and one with the highest number of people living with HIV/IADS in West-Africa. A prospective study, enrolling 50 infants with paediatric HIV/AIDs with suspected Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a community-based referral hospital. A clinical assessment was performed before treatment, serum and PCT were measured. The test results were compared to the final diagnoses 50 patients, 35 had Pulmonary Tuberculosis and 15 had bacterial associated pneumonia TB. The median PCT level was 0.564 ng/mL (range, 0.01 to 27.75) with bacterial acquired pneumonia and 0.044 ng/mL (range, 0.01 to 0.87) with pulmonary TB (p<0.001). No difference was detected in the ...

Heamatologic Indices and Anti-Spermatogenic Effects of Dietary Supplemented Carica papaya seeds on Wister Rats

Review Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Heamatologic Indices and Anti-Spermatogenic Effects of Dietary Supplemented Carica papaya seeds on Wister Rats Ibeh Nnanna Isaiah1 ( BMLS, AMLSCN, MGHT),  Unuabonah Uyi Ibhoje2 ( BSC,MSc)  *1University of Benin Health Services Department, University of Benin PMB 1154 2University of Ibadan, Faculty of Life Science, Department of Microbiology The continuous usage of indegienious plants as an intervention tool for diseases that affect both humans and animals is as old as orthodox medicine in its self in this study we evaluated the overall effect of carica papaya seeds extract on wister rats to determine its heamatoligic stimulatory effect and the anti-spermatic effect. A total of eighty rats where orally administered the various doses of the extract over a period of time and the heamatoligic and spermatologic parameters where analyzed. From the results obtained there was a slight stimulatory effects as the total white blood cell increased according to the varying doses of 100mg and 200mg respectively (6.56±0.38 and 6.96±0.10) with mean packed cell volume of 38.0±0.84 and 37.4±1.03 also noticeable is the slight rise in the Lymphocytes from the control group to the varying doses of exposure 70±2.06 and 68.6±1.12, the total Sperm cell count across the varying doses where 11.6x106 +0.5cells/mm3 and 11.3x106 +0.5cells/mm3 respectively. The above showed a a little marked increase the heamatologic parameters there was a slight increase in the lymphocyte although there was a marked decrease of sperm cell count from the control down the doses of exposure. Keywords: Heamatologic, Anti-spermatogenic, Lymphocyte, White blood cell ...

Observed variations of Plasma Procalcitonin Amonsgt Sexually Active Males With Suspected Bacterial-Urogenital Infection In Yola Metropolis

Review Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Observed variations of Plasma Procalcitonin Amonsgt Sexually Active Males With Suspected Bacterial-Urogenital Infection In Yola Metropolis Ibeh N.Isaiah1, Omobogie E. NORAH 1Department of Health Services, University of Benin PMB 1154 Background: Male urogenital infection in Nigeria has increased due to alarming rise of unprotected sex amongst the sexually active males in Nigeria. Most of these case leads to a limiting advanced disease state such as kidney infections, bacteropsermia/infertility and reinal failure. AIM: To study the elevated serum Procalcitonin levels on patients with bacterial urogenital infections as an adjunct of bacterial-fungi-viral urogenital infections for diagnosis/prognosis and antimicrobial monitoring. PATIENTS and METHODS: The study group cut across adults from the ages of 20 years and above, 40 males who were suspected to have urogenital infection and 40 who were confirmed cases of urogenital infections those with suspected urogenital infections and those with confirmed urogenital infections. Using standard microbiological techniques urine and urethral swabs were taking and proper cultural techniques were carried out to isolate the bacterial/Fungi origin of infection, blood samples were collected from patients with suspected and confirmed urogenital infections for further analysis of the Procalcitonin ratio. RESULT: a total of 40 suspected males with signs and symptoms of urogenital infections where included in this study, a microbiological analysis was carried out on MSU(midstream urine clean catch) and urethral swab, and seminal fluid analysis, 40% yielded growth of gram Staphylococcus aureus and CoNs, 22.5% yielded growths of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Acinectobacter spp, Klebseilla oxytoca while 15% had fungi/Parasitic origins,( Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis) 22.5% showed no significant growth. The mean PCT ratio across the infectious agents were, bacterial origin ( 0.4-1.1 CI 0.34-0.62) fungi/parasitic origin (0.3-1.0 CI 0.28-0.56) Conclussion: although there was no remarkable difference between the confirmed cases of ...

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American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology