American Journal of Scientific Research and Essays


The Theory of Relativity is an Error in Physics; the Speed of Light excludes the Laws of Optics

Review article of American Journal of Scientific Research and Essays The Theory of Relativity is an Error in Physics; the Speed of Light excludes the Laws of Optics Jozef Babiak Physicists measured the propagation of light in vacuum and matter through experiments with light over the course of several centuries. The Laws of Optics were derived from these measured results. The Laws of Optics were verified repeatedly via real experiments with light and used in the calculations of optical instruments that work properly. The Laws of Optics accurately define the propagation of light in vacuum and matter. All the theories of the propagation of light that ignore the Laws of Optics can, therefore, be considered an error in physics. The theories and laws of propagation of light in matter were written by famous physicists, such as Isaac Newton (1670), Christiaan Huygens (1650), Augustin-Jean Fresnel (1819), and Thomas Young (1800). The law of propagation of light in matter was described by Snell in 1620. Snell’s law is the law of the light refractive index in matter. Optical instruments are calculated according to the Laws of Optics, so by their correct operation they confirm the validity of the Laws of Optics. Two hundred years ago, André-Marie Ampére expressed the basic approach in discovering the laws of physics: “First observe the facts, to vary their circumstances as much as possible, to accompany this first task with exact measurement so as to deduce from them the general laws based solely upon experience, and to deduce from these laws, independently of any hypothesis on the nature of the forces that produce the phenomena, the mathematical value of these forces”. This approach to the measurement of the light propagation is now used in all the laboratories around the world and, therefore, can be considered as objective and ...

The Doppler effect of spectral lines and shift of the frequency of light in space

Research article of American Journal of Scientific Research and Essays The Doppler effect of spectral lines and shift of the frequency of light in space Jozef Babiak The Doppler effect of spectral lines in space is the change in the frequency of light emitted by an illuminated celestial body, which moves closer or farther away from the Earth in vacuum. A description of the change in light frequency is realized with the assumption that an illuminated celestial body in vacuum moves closer or farther away from the observer in vacuum. In this case, the propagation of light of the moving celestial body toward an observer also occurs in vacuum. Everywhere on Earth and in the surrounding space there is matter, so the choice of vacuum for the Doppler effect and the propagation of light from the moving celestial body toward the observer is not correct. From the observation of space as we know it, such as galaxies and stars, the area between the celestial bodies consists of a vacuum, but in some restricted spaces of the universe there is a transparent mass - gas, that moves at high speed against Earth. These spaces in universe filled by gas were called “intergalactic bubbles of gas” by astronomers. The propagation of light on the trajectory from an illuminated celestial body toward the observer takes place not only in a vacuum, but alternately also in the gases of intergalactic bubbles, respecting the laws of optics. The topic of the propagation of light in the universe is a very broad topic. For further information, please see reference [1], [2] and [3] ...

Market Chain Analysis of Koka Reservoir Fish in Ethiopia

Research article of American Journal of Scientific Research and Essays Market Chain Analysis of Koka Reservoir Fish in Ethiopia Abebe Cheffo1 , Lemma Zemedu (PhD)2 and Endrias Geta (PhD)2 1 national Fishery and Other Aquatic Life Research Center P.O.Box 64 Sebeta 2 Haramaya University, Department of Agricultural Economics P.O.Box 138 Dire Dawa This study analyzed the fish market chain of Koka reservoir in Ethiopia which is found in Oromia Region, East shoa and Arsi zones. The objectives of the study were to assess the structure, conduct and performance of fish marketing as well as identify factors affecting fish market supply. The study was based on the data obtained from a sample of 104 fishers and 36 traders in the fish market chain. Both descriptive and econometric methods were employed to analyze the data. About 65% Tilapia (Coroso), 21% Catfish (Ambanza) and 14% Carp (Abasamuel) were the type of fish which dominantly appear in the day to day marketing activities of the fishers. The major determinant factors of market supply were estimated by using multiple linear regression models. The fish market performance was also measured using indicators of marketing margins. According to the results, there were three kinds of fish marketing channels i.e fishers to consumers, fishers to retailers then consumers, fishers to fishery cooperatives, wholesalers then consumers. The result showed that transportation and filleting costs were the largest costs of marketing followed by gutting cost. The price of a kilogram of filleted tilapia varied from 18 birr at landing site to 75 birr at Atiklt Tera in Addis Ababa. The Ordinary Least Square results indicated that education level, availability of credit facility and ownership of fishing license significantly affected the amount of fish supplied to market by fishers in the study area. Expanding adult education in fishery community, facilitating access to credit facility ...

Adsorption Kinects and Isotherms for Removal of Rhodamine B

Research article of American Journal of Scientific Research and Essays Adsorption Kinects and Isotherms for Removal of Rhodamine B (dye) using Adsorbents prepared from drinking water treatment sludge  M.Nageeb Rashed*1, M.A.El-Daim El Taher1, S. M. M. Fadlalla2 1.Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Aswan University, Egypt 2. Aswan Company for Water and Wastewater, Aswan, Egypt The present work aims to investigate the removal of Rhodamine B dye (RB) from aqueous solution by using adsorbents prepared from alum sludge (AS) and Mud sludge (MS) of drinking water treatment plant. The effect of dye concentration, contact time, pH, temperature and adsorbent dose on the dye removal was studied. The equilibrium adsorption data of RB dye on the developed adsorbents were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) Isotherms. The sorption data fitted well to Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum dye removal efficiency was observed at pH 7, contact time 90 min,and 0.1-0.25 gm dosage for both (AS) and (MS) adsorbents . Also, four kinetic models such as Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order, Intraparticle diffusion and Elovich models were tested to interpret the experimental data. The kinetic experimental data were fitted well to Pseudo-second order model.The thermodynamics parameters of adsorption system indicated spontaneous and endothermic process. Results indicate the effectiveness of the developed adsorbents for removing RB dye. Keywords:  sweage sludge, Rhodamine B, adsorption, pollution, wastewater ...

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American Journal of Scientific Research and Essays1

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