AJAR (2016), Vol. 1, Issue 02

  • Bio-stimulant of seaweed source as an organic alimentative to Bellary onion

    The influence of bio-stimulant Aquasap powder derived from the red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii was applied at 0.2% through foliar application on bellary onion at the establishment, vegetative, bulb formation and bulb development stage. Bulb yield and quality parameters such as total soluble solid, moisture content, ash content, organic content, pyruvic acid content, physiological loss and rotting percentage were studied. The crop yield in terms of bulb in treated plant was 31.65% over control with no statistical significant in the content of pyruvic between treated and control plants.

  • Integrated weed (Orobanche crenata) management on faba bean

    In Ethiopia pulse crops are widely grown and Faba bean (Vicia faba L., 2n=12) is an old world grain legume of the family Leguminasae. This crop is one of the major pulses grown in the highlands of Ethiopia ranging from 1800-3000 m.a.s.l receiving an annual rainfall of 700-1100 mm, and the country is now considered as one of the secondary centers of genetic diversity. In eastern Amhara region high lands, faba bean is cultivated widely and thought to be an area for the largest collection of faba bean landraces. The production of faba bean is declined from year to year due to various production constraints such as diseases, soil acidity and weeds, particularly root parasitic weeds Broomrape (Orobanche species). These parasitic weeds cause very high levels of crop damage in terms of both yield and quality. Yield losses due to Orobanche weed ranges from 5 to 100% depending on the level of infestation and environmental conditions. Orobanche species are root parasitic flowering plants lack of leaves and totally dependent on their hosts for their life cycle. The parasitic is on a wide range of food legumes such as faba bean, field pea, lentil, vetch, Solanaceae crops, oil crops and root crops. The severe invasion of legume crops, especially faba bean and field pea are by Orobanche crenata. The physical attachment and the damage of the weed are under ground. The weed disperses by wind, flood, birds, animals, crop seeds, humans and farm machinery. It is propagated by seeds which can remain dormant and survive and able to viable in the soil for more than 20 years. Due to the complete devastation of faba bean by Orobanche crenata, farmers forced to replace pulse crops by cereals and spice in south Wollo (Kutaber, Dessie zuria, Tenta and Mekidela woredas); therefore, farmers lost…

  • Behavior of improved varieties and creoles of rice at the Baixada Maranhense

    This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the different varieties of creole and improved seeds of rice regarding the productive aspects and disease resistance in the experimental field of the Farm School of São Benedito and in area of farmer in Arari -MA. It was used improved seeds of rice (Primavera, Emeralds, Sertaneja, BR Irga 420, Serra Dourada, Arariba), and creoles (Palha Murcha, Rice Vermelho and Come Cru), which constituted the treatments in a randomized block design with four replications, plots of 10 m2 useful area of 2.70 m2. In the aspect of grain yield, the creole varieties Palha Murcha and Rice Vermelho presented respectively mean grain yield (x= 1.472 kg ha-1; x=1.374 kg ha-1), within the average expected for Maranhão and equal to the variety improved Arariba, in the municipality of Arari. In São Bento, the varieties Palha Murcha, BR Irga 420, Arariba, Sertaneja, Esmeralda and Primavera produced above average (1.580 kg ha-1) for Maranhão. As for the resistance to diseases, all varieties were moderately resistant to diseases brown spot and Grains spots. The varieties Primavera, Esmeralda, Sertaneja, BR Irga 420, Serra Dourada, Arariba and Palha Murcha had a high susceptibility to leaf scald in São Bento. There was incidence of narrow spot at the improved varieties Arariba and Br Irga 420, with behavior moderately resistant, the other varieties were resistant to this disease in Arari. Therefore, the rescue of creole seeds is important and enables the development of agro agriculture.

  • Impacts of climate change on crop production and its adaptation

    Climate change, which is inevitable, has a large impact on economies and livelihoods of many people. Therefore, the need to mitigate its impacts is paramount. Consequently, this has motivated a substantial body of research on the matter. The central issues that have been addressed are the impacts of climate change as well as the adaptation strategies that can be employed. The aim of this paper is to review existing literature on the above issues with a focus on smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Adaptation strategies identified include; adjustment in land use, change in technology, farm diversification and risk management. Some environmental, economic and institutional factors are revealed to hinder farmers from adopting these strategies. The study recommends emphasizes on polices enhancing adaptation by smallholder farmers. Additionally, future studies on climate change should widen the range of variables used so as to capture the current global food prices and adaptation transition costs.