The study focuses on the formation and amalgamation of administrative hubs in the Metekel area (1941-74). Metekel is renowned in administrative reforms. The administrative restructurings of Metekel areas placed with in Agewmider Awraja, then progressed into Metekel Awraja in the Gojjam administrative region until the decline of Derg. Since 1991, it existed under the region six or Benishangul Gumuz Regional state with consist of woredas such as Dibate Mandura, Dangur, Bullan, Guba, Wambara and with Pawie Special Woreda under zonal capital, Gelgel Beles. This administrative reorganization caused conflict between Gumuz and neighboring non-Gumuz communities in the 1950s and 1960s. The conflict triggered by the tax collection system that finally marks the Gumuz revolt under leadership of individual, Lambecha and his supporters. The revolt crushed by joint forces of government, Agewmider and Metekel Awrajas and it opened unending settlement of the non-Gumuz communities from Wollo, South Gondar and Gojjam. The continuous settlement of non-Gumuz communities in Metekel areas bring about enmity with Gumuz communities. However, their hostility could be solved by a bond of relationship was wadja.
The Impact of China’s Prohibition of Importing Solid Waste on the World Economy Based on Autoregressive Model
To explore the impact of China’s ban on the import of solid waste on the world economy and the environment. In this paper, a VR autoregressive model based on time series was established. India, Malaysia, the United States, and Japan were selected as countries affected by China’s ban on waste imports to replace the impact on the world. The GDP and CO2 emissions of various countries are used as indicators to measure the economy and the environment. By predicting the data that China has not implemented the ban on the collection of imported waste and comparing it with the data after the actual implementation, it was found that: after the promulgation of the policy, the environmental quality of the major importing countries declined and the economy increased. The economic impact of the significant solid waste exporting countries is not apparent, and environmental pollution increases slightly.
The role of corporate governance and ownership structure in the dividend smoothing behavior of Asian firms
The study attempts to explore the determinants of dividend smoothing behavior of Asian firms during the period from 2009-2018. The study used firm’s specific characteristics, corporate governance and ownership structure variables as determinants of dividend smoothing in Asia due to their unique features from Western markets. Based on gender critical mass theory, the study finds the presence of gender critical mass is positive and significantly associated with firm dividend smoothing behavior; whereas, presence of fever women depicts negative or insignificant association with dividend smoothing behavior. In addition, study finds that firms with board interlock and larger in size don’t follow dividend smoothing. In contrast, the findings show that higher market to book value leads to firm’s dividend smoothing behavior. Importantly, the study also finds moderation role of gender diversity between family ownership and firm’s dividend smoothing behavior. Importantly, the study splits the sample into male and female CEO and findings show that the role of gender diversity is more pronounced in firms with male CEO. These results are consistent with the predictions of gender critical mass theory. Further, contrary to the agency theory based explanations of dividend smoothing, firms with family ownership smooth dividend more. These findings suggest that gender critical mass, family ownership and higher market to book value contribute positively in dividend smoothing behavior in Asian market.
The quantity theory of money, inflation monetary theory, modern quantity theory of money and inflation, new inflation, structural inflation theory, a new neo-classical synthesis of inflation, neo political macro-economics of inflation and Phillips curve theories are gratified. Just like several developed and developing countries, in Ethiopia one of the incredible macroeconomic objectives is to improving the living standard of peoples with low inflation. Though, there has been substantial argument on the condition of the inflation and economic growth correlation. In the late 1970s and at the beginning of 1980s, various nations, comprising the United States, practiced great inflation. A comprehensive agreement arose that this routine was undesirable, and monetary officials all over the world agreed policies intended to reduce high inflation. If inflation is painfully high, policymakers distinguished what track they desirable to down inflation even though they were indeterminate of its final terminus. Inflationary delinquent has become the greatest significant macroeconomic tricky of the Ethiopian economy in current existences. Mainly for this review the author used five empirical papers which focused on the impact of money supply, economic growth and gross national saving on inflation. The result imply that on some researches money supply (in long run and short run) and real growth domestic product (in long run) has positive and negative impact on inflation rate in Ethiopia respectively. Some of the studies proved that there is negative relationship between inflation rate and gross national saving. The causality result implies as there is bi-directional causality between inflation rate and money supply. Some of the studies also finalized that real gross domestic product unidirectional granger cause inflation rate. Even if there is no consistent result but the study recommends appropriate intervention should be important by using monetary policy and fiscal policy on each respective variables. The author also insight other…
Foreign Economic Relations Of Azerbaijan And The Geopolitical Perspectives Of Its Development Under Modern Conditions
The aim of scientific research is to identify the prospects for foreign economic relations and the continued development of geopolitical interests in the world, increase foreign investment, develop competitive national wealth, uncover the essence and recreate a real picture of foreign economic relations. Considering the growing pace of development of diplomatic and economic relations between the countries of the world, it predetermines the need to create new forms of foreign economic relations of Azerbaijan.
AN EVALUATION OF THE ROLE OF FEMALE IN THE MARKETING/FIELD SALES JOBS IN NIGERIA PROBLEMS AND PROSPECT
The marketing/sales force was, and is still comprised mostly of only men/males, and little or no involvement of females/ women. In the recent past, there have been changes in this system. A visit to different tertiary institutions in Nigeria (polytechnics and universities) where Business Administration and Marketing courses are being taught will reveal that a greater percentage of candidates being admitted are females/ladies, but still there in low involvement of females in sales jobs in Nigeria. The importance of an efficient sales force in performing both the inside and field/outside selling/marketing functions of any organisation/manufacturing outfit cannot be over-emphasized. Sales force can consist of both males and females, provided they meet the necessary educational and professional qualifications required for the job, by the respective companies. In Nigeria today, there has been increasing discrimination between a field salesman or a field saleswoman. So many reasons have been posed for this discrimination, ranging from physiological reasons, family engagements and responsibilities, societal customs, norms, values, and religious beliefs. Ideally evaluating the role of Nigerian females in marketing should not be substantively different from that of their make counterparts, although emphasis and impact may vary from one establishment to another. In business, their role is unique and multi-dimensional that they permeate every economic activity, one way or the other to leave indelible marks on the nation’s path to economic growth, and the company survival and profitability.