Street vending has long been a source of debate among development economists. It has been argued that direct government intervention that aids this sector will encourage rural to urban migration. Others have argued that this sector deserves government help as often more than 50% of the urban labor force is employed by this sector. This study is designed to assess the causes, consequences and administrative interventions of street vending in Addis Ababa with particular reference to Yeka sub-city. Data were collected from randomly selected samples of 330 street vendors, 14 code enforcers and 9 government officials through questionnaires and interview of key respondents. The finding shows most of the traders came from outside Addis Ababa in search of jobs. Street vending proliferated as a way of life and a coping mechanism adopted by those economically under privileged segment of the society. Factors that led to street vending were complex and varied. According to the findings, absence of opportunity in the formal sector was the main factor that led the operators to street vending. This is followed by the need to support their family and themselves. The authorities stated that unless managed well street vending will have negative impact on traffic movement, encroach on public space and create unfair completion with formal businesses. To mitigate these problems the City administration has issued street vending regulation No. 5 in 2018 so that specific vending plots are allocated and the vendors need to do their business legally and those who fail to do so will be dealt with by the law.
Governance and Leadership Practices and Challenges in Ethiopia. The Case of Dukem Town in Oromia Regional State
The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of leadership on governance effectiveness in Dukem town. The population of this study were development team coordinators, representatives of private business organizations, and community institutions of the town. In addition, cabinet members and civil servants of the town administration were the target population for the source of data in this assessment. A total of 145 samples were selected using purposive and random sampling methods. The findings show that important traits of a leader that results in effective and better performance were missing. The informants argued that poor commitment is noticeable in the implementation of good governance in the town. Leaders are promoted to higher positions without being sufficiently prepared for the leadership role and with less sufficient understanding of the significance of good governance principles. In addition, lack of competence, inefficient and ineffective monitoring and evaluation system were major factors that contributed to ineffectiveness of leadership practices of the town administration. This poor achievement is manifested in poor coordination with stakeholders, rent seeking attitudes and poor commitment of the leadership and employees. Although various initiatives have been pursed in Oromia National Regional State to ensure good governance such as citizen charter, fighting rent seeking attitudes and making some arrangements in running town affairs, still ineffective leadership and bad governance is reported in different urban centers of the region.
Determinants of Group Loan Repayment Performance of Micro and Small Scale Enterprises: Case study Oromia Credit and Saving Share Company (Eastern Wollega Zone Branch)
The study was intended to analyze the determinants of group loan repayment performance of MSE’s sectors a case of Oromia Credit and Saving Share Company operating in the East Wollega Zone. The survey data was conducted by using the structured questionnaire in order to collect primary data from the purposively selected branches whereas secondary data were collected from published and unpublished documents. Out of 424 total number of groups owned of MSE’s sectors 168 sample size were selected and only 162 of the respondents have filled the questionnaire properly by their respective enterprise’s group leaders. The collected data were analyzed by employing descriptive statistics and ordered logit model by using STATA soft ware version 12. Result of this study shows that out of the predicting variables used in this study, group leaders education level, group leaders experience in similar business, the enterprise’s beginning capital, loan repayment period, loan follow up, Training offered by the loan officers of OCSSCO and access to output market for the enterprises finished products were found to positively influence while the enterprises group size, additional loan they received, problem of information disclosure among members, the problem of financial statement recording experience in the business, loan interest rate, problem of power interruption and shortage of water supply around the enterprise working area have negatively influenced the group loan repayment performance of MSE‘s sectors in the study area. Based on this result, the author recommended that OCSSCO has to focus on the smaller the group size through which the problem of information disclosure would be resolved ,they has to give frequent training about the financial statement recording experience, they have to deal with the concerned body to solve the problem of power interruption as well as about the shortage of water supply around the enterprise’s business area and…
Pharmacoeconomics has been characterized as the depiction and examination of the cost of medication treatment to healthcare frameworks and society. All the more explicitly, pharmacoeconomic look into is the way toward recognizing, estimating, and contrasting the costs, dangers, and advantages of programs, services, or treatments and figuring out which elective delivers the best wellbeing result for the asset contributed. This data can help clinical chiefs in picking the most cost-effective treatment alternatives. Pharmacoeconomics is a division of results examine that can be utilized to measure the estimation of pharmaceutical care items and services. Pharmaceutical care has been characterized as the mindful arrangement of medication treatment for the reasons for accomplishing unequivocal results. Purpose of the study: Discussion and projection about pharmacoeconomics. Findings: Cost of therapy is always been a concern for health seeking behavior of every country from both developed and underprivileged communities. Several cost calculations impose economic burden statistics and pharmacoeconomics deal with them. Pharmacists and other healthcare associates have much scope to contribute regarding cost minimization. Materials and Methods: Research conducted a year-round comprehensive literature search, which included technical newsletters, newspapers journals, and many other sources. The present study was started from the beginning of 2018. PubMed, ALTAVISTA, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of was thoroughly searched. The keywords were used to search for different publishers’ journals like Elsevier, Springer, Willey Online Library, Wolters Kluwer were extensively followed. Medicine and technical experts, pharma company representatives, hospital nurses and chemists were given their valuable suggestions. Projections were based on estimates of drug and therapy related cost, cost of being ill and hospitalization and cost of well-being. Pharmacists role in allied areas of cost calculation and minimizing through ADR management, prevent disease and hospitalization and drug selection were given the highest priority.
Objective: Discussion and projection of Bangladesh pharma market in a multi-dimensional approach. Methodology: Inclusive data collection from newspapers, journals, newsletters, news reports and updates. The true focus was on historical data collection, current market scenario, projections by experts in related fields, drug dealers, mergers and acquisitions, market trend analysis reports and newer development prospects. Findings: Bangladesh pharma market has tremendous hope, although going through lots of anomalies. Reasons behind are economic development, population blast, investment scopes, FDIs along with many other unexplained matters. By next decade, Bangladesh is aiming to 30 world class drug manufacturers to establish strong footstep in global pharma market. Bangladesh, as an LDC got exempted from the obligation of patent and data protection in this arena until 2033. Interestingly, Bangladesh already passed across the LDC landmark to a developing country. So, there’s window of opportunity of more than a decade to grow further from that aspect. Limitation: Market is too big to be explained in a single article. The term “A -Z” doesn’t reveal all information about Bangladesh pharma market is accomplished, rather 26 letters used in 26 headlines, that means 26 points of this market is discussed that surely comprised a greater part of it. Practical Implication: Along with students, researchers and professionals of different background and disciplines, e.g. Pharmacists, marketers, finance companies and regulatory authorities have to acquire much from this article.