Most Cited


    Background: The pH of the skin surface is elevated in the elderly therefore it may cause impaired barrier function manifest as various cutaneous abnormalities, including xerosis, pruritus, dermatitis, and skin infections. Consequently, skin care products for the elderly should contain moisturizing ingredients which are formulated to normalize the skin surface pH. Application of pH 4 emulsion is potentially beneficial to improve barrier function in the elderly and promoting skin health. We aimed to determine the difference of effectiveness of pH 4 emulsion compared to identical non pH 4 emulsion on decreasing TEWL in the elderly. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed of randomized clinical trials assessing the effects of pH 4 emulsion on skin barrier function in the elderly. Methods: Medline Pubmed, Scopus, ProQuest, Cochrane library,, the reference list, conference proceedings, researchers in the field of eligible studies were searched. Four studies (n=98 subjects) were included in qualitative analysis of which two studies (n=45 subjects) were included in the meta-analysis. The mean age of the participants was 71.1 years old. Interventions use the application of pH 4 water in oil emulsion (n=2) and pH 4 oil in water emulsion (n=2). Duration of intervention (24 hours-7 weeks) and outcomes of interest varied among included studies. Results: Pooling of data using random-effects model found lower TEWL score in the pH 4 emulsion than in non pH 4 emulsion, with no significant difference (overall effect mean difference -0.068, 95% confidence interval -0.485 – 0.348, p = 0.11, I2=60.1, two RCTs). In addition to that, the qualitative analysis found that the application of pH 4 emulsion increased stratum corneum hydration, decreased skin surface roughness and scaliness, decreased DASI, and improved ICLL length and lamellar organization. Conclusion: The meta-analysis result of the mean differences of TEWL scores lowering effect between pH 4 emulsion…

  • The Quantitative Analysis and Decision-making of MSMEs’ Credit Risk

    In this study, we focused on the quantitative analysis and decision-making of credit risk of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) from the perspective of bank. Based on the data of 123 MSMEs, we extracted and processed information from the original data with theoretical analysis and feature engineering, and established an entropy weight-TOPSIS model to get the credit risk index of each MSME. Meanwhile, the credit strategy optimization model was constructed, and the DE algorithm was used to solve the credit strategy scheme for bank to each MSME. According to the relationship between the total annual credit of bank, interest rate and expected profit, we analyzed the partial sensitivity of the model and explored the maximum profitability of the bank and finally gave helpful suggestions. Our results have guiding significance for banks to manage and make decisions on the credit risk of MSMEs.


    Genetics demonstrate a distinctive Jewish-Portuguese heritage, especially in central Portugal, and the explanation can be given through an interdisciplinary analysis, involving geophysics, language, and economics. The text of the Bible (and the parallel existence of the Atlantis concept) can be put into meaning thanks to the strict application of natural justice concepts and of a basic hypothesis on a cattle herding economy that involved high degrees of inequality (caste-like), the victims finding justice in a cosmic fireball event that destroyed the nobility, triggered as well volcanic eruptions, and pushed them out, with a tsunami, as they had climbed on pumice stones. Because of the high natural radioactivity involved, from the fireballs and volcanic fallout, and of salt in the sea, memories were pretty much erased and the event reconstituted only simplistically.

  • Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma using the Smart Fusion needle navigation system: conversion from real-time 4D-echo data

    Advances in ultrasound systems have improved the accuracy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis and treatment. We have been treating HCC using real-time 4D and Live 3D-echo technologies. However, these treatment methods have drawbacks such as vibrations during puncture and a limited angle of needle insertion. To overcome these problems, systems that can display ultrasound images simultaneously with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance images in a real-time manner for reference purposes have been reported. These systems have recently been equipped with a needle tip navigation system, making it possible to reliably visualize tumors and determine the needle tip position in a tumor. These developments have enabled the safe treatment of HCC. Treatment using needle navigation is performed as follows: A Canon APLIO800 ultrasound system is used with a conventional convex probe (PVT-375BT) and a micro-convex probe (PVT-382BT). The system function is known as Smart Fusion. Ultrasound images can be displayed with volume data from other modalities, such as CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in relation to the positional information using a magnetic sensor. This enables the use of CT/MRI data as reference for accurate puncture and treatment of lesions that are difficult to identify by ultrasound alone. Axis alignment is also completed by displaying the xiphoid process on a CT image and having the system learn the orientation of the probe placed perpendicular to the body axis. Then, landmark alignment is performed and fine-adjusted by aligning a target point near the lesion with the same point as displayed on CT (Fig. 1). Case presentation A 7x-year-old woman was found to have elevated tumor markers and a liver tumor identified by regular blood testing and CT performed in August 20xx and was admitted to our hospital for treatment. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic lesion measuring approximately 3 cm in diameter…

  • Social work and strengthening of NGOs in development cooperation to treat drug addiction

    Social work is one of the youngest scientific disciplines, it has developed itself as a discipline to address individuals, families and communities in social crisis (poverty, low level of education, un- employment, diseases, social isolation). In the last decade also problems with alcohol and drug dependencies increasingly became the subject of social work support(systems). Due to coming global- isation, where living space has become wider than the community itself, social work was forced to operate within wider horizons and to go beyond communities boundaries. Social work nowadays has been becoming a more global scientific discipline seeking answers to global questions. Social work is therefore linked to all seventeen global goals of sustainable development (SDGs). As the prevention and treatment of drug addiction in Germany and Central Asia has reached a common urgency, a training and research project in the field of social work in addiction support was developed in Germa- ny, Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan) and China. The development of social work in these countries increasingly led to the development of common principles in the technology and ethics of social work, comparing standards and working out the socio-cultural peculiarities in the definition and practice of social work. These developments are examined and presented and their common solution ideas discussed in the con- text of achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

  • Prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies during a screening campaign in August 2019

    Introduction: Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus infections represent a major public health problem, with significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies, and to investigate the risk factors associated with these two infections. Patients and methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out during a free screening campaign for viral hepatitis B and C organized by the University Teaching Hospital of Yaounde from 20th to 23rd August 2019. Screening for HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies was carried out using a rapid diagnostic test (On Site HBsAg/HCV Ab Rapid Test (CTK Inc 10110 Mesa Rim Road San Diego, CA 92121 USA) in accordance with the manufacturer’s Instruction. Positive samples had a confirmatory ELISA test. A structured questionnaire was used to investigate the risk factors for viral hepatitis B and C. Results: A total of 746 participants (412 women, 334 men) were registered. The average age of the participants was 29.6 ± 15.5 years. The prevalence of HBsAg was 10.3% (men: 14.7%; women: 7%; p = 0.002). The prevalence of HCV-Ab was 4.7% (men: 6.3%; women: 3.4%; p = 0.08). Unprotected sexual intercourse (59.4%), dental care (38.7%) and scarification (37.1%) were the main factors of HBV and HCV transmission. Male sex (OR = 2.2; IC = 1.3 – 3.6; p = 0.002), lack of vaccination (OR = 3.4; IC = 1.2 – 9.6; p = 0.01), tattoos (OR = 6.6; IC = 1.4 – 30.2; p = 0.02) and close contact with an HBV-infected person (OR = 1.7; IC = 1.01 – 2.9; p = 0.04) were the factors associated with HBV transmission. Age groups ≥ 55 years (OR = 1.3; IC = 1.1 – 1.5; p < 0.0001) and [45 – 54] (OR = 1.06; IC = 1.0...

  • Oral health status of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in two hospitals of Yaoundé Cameroon: A comparative study

    Background: Liver cirrhosis is an ultimate complication of all chronic liver diseases. The oral cavity especially the periodontium is affected by malnutrition, coagulation disorders, immunodeficiency which are some of the main features present in patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of oral pathologies in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in two hospitals of Yaoundé Cameroon. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and analytical study comparing the oral health status of decompensated liver cirrhotic patients in Yaoundé with sex and age (±3 years) matched healthy controls from the same area. We enrolled patients with liver cirrhosis (Child Pugh score greater than or equal to 7) and their corresponding healthy controls. For each participant, socio-demographic data, clinical data on liver cirrhosis and on oral examination were collected. Oral examination evaluated the level of oral hygiene, gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and Clinical attachment loss (CAL), determined and identified oral mucosal lesions. The mean Decayed-Missing-Filled-Teeth (DMFT) index and prevalence of dental caries were also determined. The groups were then compared with regards to periodontal oral mucosal and dental variables using chi square test and Mantel – Haenszel odds ratio was used to determine the strength of association between decompensated liver cirrhosis and oral pathologies. The student‘s T-test was used to compare mean values of quantitative variables. A p-value ˂ 0.05 was statistically significant. Results: We included a total of 80 participants among which 40 liver cirrhotic patients and 40 sex and age (±3 years) matched controls. The mean age was 50.0(±19.0) years for the cases and 52.4(±17.9) years for the healthy controls. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) were the main aetiology of liver cirrhosis representing 42.5% and 30% respectively and Child Pugh class B (65% of cases)…


    The 2020 Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act terminated the Sunscreen Innovation Act (SIA) that the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) uses to determine sunscreen actives as safe and effective for human use. The Act also nullified a recent FDA proposal that reclassified 14 organic sunscreen actives as either not safe for human use or requires more data before being used in humans. Most sunscreen actives were approved in 1978; since that time the FDA has determined that over the last 20 years several changes have occurred leading to a substantial increase in sunscreen usage and exposure that increases the potential health risks associated with their use. Based on the scientific literature for the actives reviewed, it is clear that the SIA is needed to assure that sunscreen and other over-the-counter drugs are safe and efficacious for human use prior to entering the marketplace.

  • Prevalence, clinical characteristics and related mortality of cirrhosis in a tertiary hospital setting in Sub Saharan Africa

    Background: Published data on the prevalence and mortality associated to cirrhosis is rare in Cameroon. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical and para clinical characteristics and associated mortality of cirrhosis at the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital (YUTH), Cameroon. Methods: Files of patient’s followed up or admitted for cirrhosis at the YUTH between June 1st 2016 and June 30th 2018 were reviewed. The diagnosis of cirrhosis was made based on clinical, biological, ultrasonographic and/or endoscopic signs of portal hypertension and chronic liver failure. In other to establish the cause of cirrhosis, markers of documented chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) was sought in the file of the patients and if not present, hepatitis C antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen testing were requested. In patients negative for HBV and HCV markers, alcohol intake was considered as a cause of cirrhosis in someone who have been consuming more than 30 g/day (for males) or more than 20 g/day (for females) of alcohol. Data analyses were performed using Epi info V 3.5.4. Results: During the period of study, 1748 patients were admitted in the internal medicine unit among which 117 had cirrhosis giving a prevalence of 6.7%. There were 67 males (57.3%) and 50 females (42.7%). The mean age of patients was 51 +/- 19.862 years. Patients with HCV related cirrhosis were older (mean age: 68years) than those with HBV induced cirrhosis (mean age: 38years). The most frequent signs were ascites 104 patients (88.9%), asthenia 92(78.6%), hepatomegaly 68(58.1%), jaundice 61(52.1%), abdominal distension 54(46.2%) and gastrointestinal bleeding 29(24.8%). Anaemia was present in 58 patients (49.6%), thrombocytopenia in 56 patients (47.9%), low prothrombine time in 64 patients (54.7%). Mean serum albumine was 27.59 g/l (6-70), mean total bilirubine 49.41mg/l (3-275mg/l), mean AFP 75693 mg/ml (0.8-1578022). Spontaneous…

  • The Effect of Plain Cigarette Packaging on Implicit Attitudes

    Rationale: The significance of this research stems from the impact implicit attitudes have on smoking behavior, where positive implicit attitudes can result in a greater likelihood of smoking behavior. Even though it has previously been argued that implicit attitudes can drive addictive behavior there is a lack of research on whether cigarette packaging has an influence on implicit attitudes. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of plain cigarette packaging and designed/logo cigarette packaging on implicit attitudes. Methods: Implicit attitudes towards cigarette packaging were assessed by means of the Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT). A questionnaire was conducted to assess sociodemographic and smoking behavior. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess level of dependence. The sample consisted of 264 participants. Results: BIAT indicate a significant association between designed/logo cigarette packaging and positive implicit attitudes (Mean d-score > .15). Cigarette packaging design’s influence on implicit attitudes is positive (Mean d-score = .22), where there is a slight association between designed/logo packaging and positive implicit attitudes. Conclusions: When compared with plain packaging, designed/logo cigarette packaging leads to positive implicit attitudes. These findings support the effectiveness of plain packaging regulations where the removal of color, design and logo from cigarette packaging will decrease positive implicit attitudes formed by cigarette packaging.