Most Cited

  • Social work and strengthening of NGOs in development cooperation to treat drug addiction

    Social work is one of the youngest scientific disciplines, it has developed itself as a discipline to address individuals, families and communities in social crisis (poverty, low level of education, un- employment, diseases, social isolation). In the last decade also problems with alcohol and drug dependencies increasingly became the subject of social work support(systems). Due to coming global- isation, where living space has become wider than the community itself, social work was forced to operate within wider horizons and to go beyond communities boundaries. Social work nowadays has been becoming a more global scientific discipline seeking answers to global questions. Social work is therefore linked to all seventeen global goals of sustainable development (SDGs). As the prevention and treatment of drug addiction in Germany and Central Asia has reached a common urgency, a training and research project in the field of social work in addiction support was developed in Germa- ny, Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan) and China. The development of social work in these countries increasingly led to the development of common principles in the technology and ethics of social work, comparing standards and working out the socio-cultural peculiarities in the definition and practice of social work. These developments are examined and presented and their common solution ideas discussed in the con- text of achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

  • Prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies during a screening campaign in August 2019

    Introduction: Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus infections represent a major public health problem, with significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies, and to investigate the risk factors associated with these two infections. Patients and methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out during a free screening campaign for viral hepatitis B and C organized by the University Teaching Hospital of Yaounde from 20th to 23rd August 2019. Screening for HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies was carried out using a rapid diagnostic test (On Site HBsAg/HCV Ab Rapid Test (CTK Inc 10110 Mesa Rim Road San Diego, CA 92121 USA) in accordance with the manufacturer’s Instruction. Positive samples had a confirmatory ELISA test. A structured questionnaire was used to investigate the risk factors for viral hepatitis B and C. Results: A total of 746 participants (412 women, 334 men) were registered. The average age of the participants was 29.6 ± 15.5 years. The prevalence of HBsAg was 10.3% (men: 14.7%; women: 7%; p = 0.002). The prevalence of HCV-Ab was 4.7% (men: 6.3%; women: 3.4%; p = 0.08). Unprotected sexual intercourse (59.4%), dental care (38.7%) and scarification (37.1%) were the main factors of HBV and HCV transmission. Male sex (OR = 2.2; IC = 1.3 – 3.6; p = 0.002), lack of vaccination (OR = 3.4; IC = 1.2 – 9.6; p = 0.01), tattoos (OR = 6.6; IC = 1.4 – 30.2; p = 0.02) and close contact with an HBV-infected person (OR = 1.7; IC = 1.01 – 2.9; p = 0.04) were the factors associated with HBV transmission. Age groups ≥ 55 years (OR = 1.3; IC = 1.1 – 1.5; p < 0.0001) and [45 – 54] (OR = 1.06; IC = 1.0...

  • Oral health status of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in two hospitals of Yaoundé Cameroon: A comparative study

    Background: Liver cirrhosis is an ultimate complication of all chronic liver diseases. The oral cavity especially the periodontium is affected by malnutrition, coagulation disorders, immunodeficiency which are some of the main features present in patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of oral pathologies in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in two hospitals of Yaoundé Cameroon. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and analytical study comparing the oral health status of decompensated liver cirrhotic patients in Yaoundé with sex and age (±3 years) matched healthy controls from the same area. We enrolled patients with liver cirrhosis (Child Pugh score greater than or equal to 7) and their corresponding healthy controls. For each participant, socio-demographic data, clinical data on liver cirrhosis and on oral examination were collected. Oral examination evaluated the level of oral hygiene, gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and Clinical attachment loss (CAL), determined and identified oral mucosal lesions. The mean Decayed-Missing-Filled-Teeth (DMFT) index and prevalence of dental caries were also determined. The groups were then compared with regards to periodontal oral mucosal and dental variables using chi square test and Mantel – Haenszel odds ratio was used to determine the strength of association between decompensated liver cirrhosis and oral pathologies. The student‘s T-test was used to compare mean values of quantitative variables. A p-value ˂ 0.05 was statistically significant. Results: We included a total of 80 participants among which 40 liver cirrhotic patients and 40 sex and age (±3 years) matched controls. The mean age was 50.0(±19.0) years for the cases and 52.4(±17.9) years for the healthy controls. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) were the main aetiology of liver cirrhosis representing 42.5% and 30% respectively and Child Pugh class B (65% of cases)…


    The 2020 Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act terminated the Sunscreen Innovation Act (SIA) that the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) uses to determine sunscreen actives as safe and effective for human use. The Act also nullified a recent FDA proposal that reclassified 14 organic sunscreen actives as either not safe for human use or requires more data before being used in humans. Most sunscreen actives were approved in 1978; since that time the FDA has determined that over the last 20 years several changes have occurred leading to a substantial increase in sunscreen usage and exposure that increases the potential health risks associated with their use. Based on the scientific literature for the actives reviewed, it is clear that the SIA is needed to assure that sunscreen and other over-the-counter drugs are safe and efficacious for human use prior to entering the marketplace.

  • Prevalence, clinical characteristics and related mortality of cirrhosis in a tertiary hospital setting in Sub Saharan Africa

    Background: Published data on the prevalence and mortality associated to cirrhosis is rare in Cameroon. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical and para clinical characteristics and associated mortality of cirrhosis at the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital (YUTH), Cameroon. Methods: Files of patient’s followed up or admitted for cirrhosis at the YUTH between June 1st 2016 and June 30th 2018 were reviewed. The diagnosis of cirrhosis was made based on clinical, biological, ultrasonographic and/or endoscopic signs of portal hypertension and chronic liver failure. In other to establish the cause of cirrhosis, markers of documented chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) was sought in the file of the patients and if not present, hepatitis C antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen testing were requested. In patients negative for HBV and HCV markers, alcohol intake was considered as a cause of cirrhosis in someone who have been consuming more than 30 g/day (for males) or more than 20 g/day (for females) of alcohol. Data analyses were performed using Epi info V 3.5.4. Results: During the period of study, 1748 patients were admitted in the internal medicine unit among which 117 had cirrhosis giving a prevalence of 6.7%. There were 67 males (57.3%) and 50 females (42.7%). The mean age of patients was 51 +/- 19.862 years. Patients with HCV related cirrhosis were older (mean age: 68years) than those with HBV induced cirrhosis (mean age: 38years). The most frequent signs were ascites 104 patients (88.9%), asthenia 92(78.6%), hepatomegaly 68(58.1%), jaundice 61(52.1%), abdominal distension 54(46.2%) and gastrointestinal bleeding 29(24.8%). Anaemia was present in 58 patients (49.6%), thrombocytopenia in 56 patients (47.9%), low prothrombine time in 64 patients (54.7%). Mean serum albumine was 27.59 g/l (6-70), mean total bilirubine 49.41mg/l (3-275mg/l), mean AFP 75693 mg/ml (0.8-1578022). Spontaneous…

  • The Effect of Plain Cigarette Packaging on Implicit Attitudes

    Rationale: The significance of this research stems from the impact implicit attitudes have on smoking behavior, where positive implicit attitudes can result in a greater likelihood of smoking behavior. Even though it has previously been argued that implicit attitudes can drive addictive behavior there is a lack of research on whether cigarette packaging has an influence on implicit attitudes. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of plain cigarette packaging and designed/logo cigarette packaging on implicit attitudes. Methods: Implicit attitudes towards cigarette packaging were assessed by means of the Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT). A questionnaire was conducted to assess sociodemographic and smoking behavior. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess level of dependence. The sample consisted of 264 participants. Results: BIAT indicate a significant association between designed/logo cigarette packaging and positive implicit attitudes (Mean d-score > .15). Cigarette packaging design’s influence on implicit attitudes is positive (Mean d-score = .22), where there is a slight association between designed/logo packaging and positive implicit attitudes. Conclusions: When compared with plain packaging, designed/logo cigarette packaging leads to positive implicit attitudes. These findings support the effectiveness of plain packaging regulations where the removal of color, design and logo from cigarette packaging will decrease positive implicit attitudes formed by cigarette packaging.

  • Usefulness of Castor Oil and Elobixibat and Lactulose and ascorbic Aid for Bowel Preparation for Colon Capsule Endoscopy-Initial examination

    Colon capsule endoscopy was approved for reimbursement under the national health insurance system of Japan in 2014. However, the capsule excretion rate after recommended bowel preparation reportedly ranges from 70% to 90%, and administration of boosters is also necessary. The caster oil-based booster had an emission rate of 97%, but required a total water content of 3L. Considering whether it is possible to popularize colon capsule endoscopy by reducing the amount of water, including dialysis patients with water restrictions, we will consider whether the capsule discharge rate can be improved by combining new laxatives.


    Objectives: Metastatic tumors to the oral cavity are observed extremely rarely, accounting for approximately 1% of all malignant oral lesions. The purpose of our study is to record and analyze the data of the patients who revealed metastasis to the oral cavity. Material and Methods: The records of the patients diagnosed with oral metastases who were admitted to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Departments from 1996 to 2018 were reviewed and analyzed for demographic data and outcomes. Results: Over a period of 22 years (from 1996 to 2018), 22 patients were admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Departments of General Hospital G. Papanikolaou and Theageneion Anticancer Hospital with oral metastasic tumors from a distant primary site. Conclusions: Metastasis to the oral cavity is a very rare finding but it exists so we have to be aware of it and have in mind the possibility of this condition.


    Background: Axillary hyperpigmentation is a common and troublesome complaint especially among dark-skinned women. It is believed to be a form of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and so far, there is no universally accepted treatment for the disorder. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of fractional CO2 laser in the treatment of axillary hyperpigmentation Patients and methods: Thirty Egyptian females with axillary hyperpigmentation were recruited. The severity of the condition was estimated by both self-assessment and expert dermatologist before treatment. Four sessions of fractional CO2 laser were done. Both the efficacy and complications were assessed by the patient and the dermatologist six month after the last session. Results: There was a statistically significant difference of percentage of improvement of pigmentation before compared to one month after treatment as detected by self-assessment (p value= 0.002) and the observer’s assessment (p value= 0.001). Conclusion: Fractional CO2 laser, in properly chosen parameters, is an effective method for the treatment of axillary hyperpigmentation.


    Background: Treatment of resistant alopecia totalis AT is a major problem in general practice. Some studies reported the use of either excimer-308 or intra-muscular triamcinolone acetonide as a monotherapy, with conflicting results. Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of combining 308-excimer phototherapy and intramuscular triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of alopecia totalis. Methods and Material: Ten patients with alopecia totalis were evaluated in this prospective interventional study. All patients were assigned to receive the thera-peutic regimen that includes monthly IM triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) for a maximum of six pulses and twice-weekly excimer phototherapy for 24 sessions. Results: The overall response rate for this regimen was 90%, with four patients 40% achieving complete regrowth of hair (100%). Three patients have exhibited a satisfactory response (>70% regrowth). Unsatisfactory response ( >10-< 70% regrowth) was reported in two patients . Younger patients responded better, as did those with a shorter history of the disease P < 0.05. At follow-up, which continued for 8–12 months, recurrence was noted in two (22.2%) of the nine responders. Conclusions: Combining excimer phototherapy with triamcinolone acetonide showed a promising effect on resistant AT. This treatment modality was effective and well tolerated particularly in young patients.