Most Cited

  • Epidemiological Profile of Tuberculosis in the Municipality of Limoeiro, Pernambuco, for the Period 2008-2013

    Introduction: This study characterized the epidemiological profile of the reported cases of tuberculosis in the municipality of Limoeiro / PE, between 2008 and 2010. Methodology: This is an epidemiological, observational, retrospective study that used the (SINAN) obtained from the Epidemiological Surveillance of the Municipal Health Department, in which the data were analyzed according to the following variables: gender, age group, institutionalization status, area of residence, clinical form, type of entry , termination status, HIV serology. Results: In the study period, 347 cases of tuberculosis were reported. It was verified that males and individuals aged 15 years and over were the most affected by the disease, with 87.03% and 98.85% respectively. Regarding the institutionalization situation, 55.04% of the cases were institutionalized. The urban area accounted for 39.48% of the cases. The pulmonary form was the most predominant with 95.10%. The main mode of entry was the new case with 76.08%. Regarding the closure situation, the cure outcome was more frequent at 75.50%, mean treatment dropout was 3.75%, and TB-related death was 1.73%. TB / HIV coinfection represents 3.75% of the notifications, and 40.63% of the patients did not perform serology for HIV. Conclusions / Considerations: These results contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the municipality, thus providing subsidies for disease control planning and prevention actions, as well as suggestions for other studies and development of new public policies.

  • Socio-demographic Profile of Drug Use and Treatment in Cocaine/Crack Users

    Introduction: The current Brazilian scenario shows that abusive use of psychoactive substances directly influences social and public health problems. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic, drug use and treatment profile of cocaine and crack users under treatment at treatment units in the Arapiraca municipality, in the Agreste region of Alagoas. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional quantitative research carried out in welcoming communities in the Agreste of Alagoas, Brazil, and in the Specialized Reference Center for Population in Situation of the Street (POP Center). A sociodemographic data form was used that allowed to know the profile of the users. The data collected were inserted in a database using SPSS 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, United States). Results: Most of the interviewees have their own residence. Closely followed are those residing in unstable housing which reflects that this vulnerability has great influence on the use of crack. The education level of most of the interviewees is low and income less than a minimum wage, the latter factor considerable for the choice of crack. Regarding the profile of drug use, most interviewees started using marijuana drugs between 12 and 17 years of age, and between 18 and 25 years of age began using cocaine / crack. Conclusion: The study makes clear the high level of drug dependence and abuse, where users who have cocaine / crack as the drug of choice have a greater crack.

  • Design of Fault Simulation Software for Intake and Exhaust System of Marine Diesel Engine

    Aiming at the problems of high operating cost, high training cost and large site requirement of traditional marine engine platform, the software of fault diagnosis system for marine diesel engine intake and exhaust system is developed by using Visual Studio 2012 platform. The relevant mathematical model is established by numerical method, and the conversion from mathematical model to code is realized to simulate the working status of marine intake and exhaust system in normal operation and failure. The results show that the simulation system runs well with low cost and small site requirement. It can accurately simulate the normal operation and fault state of the ship intake and exhaust system. It can be used for training work and improve the actual response ability of the trainers to the fault of the ship intake and exhaust system.

  • Analysis to the Violation of Cooperative Principles in Daily Conversation and the Production of Humor

    Humor is the flash of one’s knowledge, talent, wisdom, and inspiration in language expression as well as the ability to grasp “funny or witty imagination.”.Humorous language, like a lubricant, can effectively reduce the “coefficient of friction” between people. The principle of Cooperation was put forward by Grice, a famous American language philosopher, in a speech at Harvard University in 1967. Grice believes that in the process of people’s communication, the two sides of the dialogue seem to follow a certain principle intentionally or unintentionally in order to complete the communicative task effectively. To make the communication activities go smoothly, the communicative parties always follow the cooperative principle in the process of language communication; But sometimes, in order to achieve some kind of communicative purpose, people usually break the cooperative principles and then complete the conversation in a humorous way. This paper will analyze how daily conversation can achieve humor by violating the cooperative principle. Furthermore, it is proved that the violation of the four maxims has a strong explanatory power to the emergence of humorous language.

  • Logistics Service Supply Chain service quality inspection results contract coordination under information asymmetry

    Aiming at the two-level service supply chain, which is dominated by logistics service provider (LS) and logistics service Platform operator (LP), it is faced with the problem of uncertain market demand and asymmetric information of logistics capacity service failure rate. Under the income distribution mode of LS and LP income sharing, this thesis uses the Stackelberg game principle to propose a cost-sharing compensation contract based on the result of capacity service quality test to coordinate the supply chain. The results show that the compensation contract of cost allocation can effectively solve the problem of information asymmetry and realize the growth of supply chain income. However, the overall supply chain income has not been maximized due to the inability to achieve the simultaneous coordination of LP’s effort level and capacity supply decision.

  • Emergency surgery for a Morgagni hernia causing respiratory failure

    Reports of emergency surgical repair of a retrosternal hernia causing respiratory failure in an adult are rare. We treated an 82-year-old man who had been suffering breathlessness upon exertion, some speech difficulty, and, most recently, visual hallucinations. He had consulted a physician who ordered an arterial blood gas test, which revealed hypoxemia, and thoracoabdominal computed tomography (CT), which revealed a hernia that was compressing the pulmonary parenchyma. Over the next 30 days, the hernia worsened, acute respiratory failure developed, and the patient was transferred to our hospital by ambulance. The patient presented to us not only with respiratory failure but also a decreased level of consciousness. CT performed upon admission revealed prolapse of the transverse colon from the posterior surface of the sternum to the right thoracic cavity, left deviation of the mediastinum, and compression of the pulmonary parenchyma, which we believed to be the cause of the hypoxemia. With the hernial orifice appearing to be on the right, a Morgagni hernia was diagnosed. Emergency surgery was deemed necessary. An epigastric midline laparotomy incision was placed, and we observed a retrosternal hernia, with an enlarged foramen of Morgagni measuring 70mm × 50 mm as the hernial orifice. The hernia contained portions of the greater omentum and transverse colon. We returned the contents to the peritoneal cavity manually closed the hernia orifice by simple suturing and reinforced the repair with a mesh patch. With signs of cardiac failure developing, temporary noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation was instituted from postoperative day 5 to postoperative day 11, but the patient’s general condition improved thereafter, and he was discharged on postoperative day 29.

  • An Extensive Review on Sunscreen and Suntan Preparations

    The sunscreen industry is achieving remarkable worldwide prominence by responding to the growing need for skin protection with fast-paced innovation. Increased consumer awareness of the harmful effects of sunlight has fueled the demand for improved photo protection. The need for broad-spectrum protection from both UVA and UVB rays has inspired scientists worldwide to research new cosmetic formulations and delivery systems. More effective sunscreen actives, emollients and novel cosmetic and functional ingredients have been regularly added to the formulator’s repertoire. Creativity in innovation has been hindered only by regulatory agencies and patent restrictions worldwide. Familiarity with the current restrictive regulations and patent law infringements has become integral to any research effort attempting to provide improved protection to individuals affected by the sun’s damaging effects. The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photo damaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sun screening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Unlike the situation in Europe where sunscreen ingredients are considered under cosmetics guidelines, the FDA is required to define sunscreens as drugs since they are advertised to prevent sunburn and, more recently, the risk of skin cancer. In the USA, the FDA has been regulating this industry since August 25, 1978, with the publication of the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. Sunscreens are considered drugs and cosmetics and therefore must be governed by the FDA-OTC monograph. With the variety of sunscreen agents used in cosmetic and UV protection products, Australia, Canada, and the European Union (EU) have also developed regulatory protocols on safe sunscreen product use. Unlike the USA though, Australia has approved 34 active sunscreen ingredients and the EU has approved 28 of these ingredients. Current FDA regulations allow labeling of sunscreen products to a maximum of 30þ, despite the…

  • Skin Lightening and Management of Hyperpigmentation

    Skin color, along with hair and eye color, is genetically determined by the amount of melanin found in the top layers of skin. Its varied presence – which accounts for different skin colors – is linked to a population’s historic levels of sun exposure. Skin-lightening is just one of the multiple options for augmenting the skin’s surface appearance, including but not limited to tanning, scarification, makeup, tattooing, face lifts, nose jobs, botox, lip extensions, and piercings. Skin-bleaching practices, such as using skin creams and soaps to achieve a lighter skin tone, are common throughout the world and are triggered by cosmetic reasons that oftentimes have deep historical, economic, sociocultural, and psychosocial roots. The cosmetics industry has traditionally relied on convincing people that they are incomplete without a particular product. Yet, unlike makeup or fake tan, skin-whitening creams base beauty on a racial hierarchy, fueling intolerance and causing serious social harm. Lighter and fairer skin is something that everyone craves for, and celebrities play a massive part in paving the way. Just like ladies, men also aspire to get immaculate, glowing and healthy-looking skin to accentuate their personality and overall looks. It’s for everyone to understand that men really feel shy to discuss the skincare routines as they feel it’s all-girl stuff. But there is no denying that even boys need to uplift and improve their skin texture to feel good. Studies have documented the use of skin fairness products, sometimes referred to as “skin whitening products,” “skin bleaching products,” “depigmenting agents,” in Africa, Europe, North America, and Asia, with prevalence of use ranging from 30 to 80% among various community samples. Skin fairness products include whitening and skin-lightening creams, face washes, deodorants, and lotions. These agents act in different ways to lighten skin, but generally work by suppressing the production…

  • Skin Care Creams: Formulation and Use

    Skin reflects origin, lifestyle, age and state of health. Skin color, tone and evenness, pigmentation, as well as skin surface characteristics are signs of skin’s health. The cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry offers a vast armamentarium of skin care products and procedures to clean, soothe, restore, reinforce, protect and to treat our skin and hence to keep it in “good condition”. Skin care products are readily available in daily life and they play a major role in health and nursing care. The promotion of skin care products including their claims are often based on an effect (e.g., moisturizing, antioxidant), evoked by an active (e.g., urea, tocopherol) that is delivered through a vehicle (e.g., lotion) that relies on a specific technology (e.g., nanotechnology). In addition, “without” claims (e.g., without parabens) often accompany nowadays promotions. Today, modern skin care includes cleansing, soothing, restoring, reinforcing and protecting. With increasing age, the emphasis on skin care is changing. The importance of soothing, restoring, reinforcing increases and cleansing should be executed with particular care. The character of skin care shifts from more cosmetic objectives e smooth, healthy looking skin e to more therapeutic and preventive objectives e soothing, restoring, reinforcing and protecting stressed skin. Even though skin care and skin protection play an important role throughout lifetime the skin areas in primary need of care and protection also change. In younger years, environmental factors (e.g., UV radiation) are of primary importance whereas in advanced years, age-related factors (e.g., prolonged exposure to various sources of moisture, including urine or feces, perspiration, wound exudate, and their contents) become more important. Subsequently the skin areas in need of care and protection also change e initially skin areas (e.g., face, arms, legs) exposed to the external environment and later enclosed skin areas (e.g., skin folds, perianal, perigenital skin, groin, feet)…

  • An Extensive Review of Cosmetics in Use

    The word “cosmetics” actually stems from its use in Ancient Rome. They were typically produced by female slaves known as “cosmetae,” which is where the word “cosmetics” stemmed from. Cosmetics are used to enhance appearance. Makeup has been around for many centuries. The first known people who used cosmetics to enhance their beauty were the Egyptians. Makeup those days was just simple eye coloring or some material for the body. Now-a-days makeup plays an important role for both men and women. In evolutionary psychology, social competition of appearance strengthens women’s desires for ideal beauty. According to “The Origin of Species”, humans have evolved to transfer genes to future generations through sexual selection that regards the body condition of ideal beauty as excellent fertility. Additionally, since women’s beauty has recently been considered a competitive advantage to create social power, a body that meets the social standards of a culture could achieve limited social resources. That’s right, even men have become more beauty conscious and are concerned about their looks. Cosmetics can be produced in the organic and hypoallergenic form to meet the demands of users. Makeup is used as a beauty aid to help build up the self-esteem and confidence of an individual. The importance of cosmetics has increased as many people want to stay young and attractive. Cosmetics are readily available today in the form of creams, lipstick, perfumes, eye shadows, nail polishes, hair sprays etc. Other cosmetics like face powder give glow to the skin after applying the base cream. Then we have lipsticks, which are applied by many women of all ages. They are made from wax and cocoa butter in the desired amount. Cosmetics like creams, gels, and colognes are used on a daily basis by both women and men. Creams act as a cleanser for the…