Most Cited


    Universal acquired melanosis or “Carbon Baby Syndrome” is a progressive condition without any definitive evidence of etiology, long-term prognosis and treatment1. We describe case of a four year old female child presented with blackish discolouration of skin all over body giving a picture similar to “Carbon Baby”.

  • Cultural Competence, Race, and Ethnicity in Community Based Recovery Treatment Programs

    Cultural competence is more than speaking the language or recognizing the cultural icons of a given group of individuals. Treating the individual is treating their culture. A culturally competent treatment professional must acknowledge an individual’s cultural strengths, values, and experiences while encouraging behavioral and attitudinal change. A significant variable in the change process is the relationship between racial or ethnic matching of clients and counselors. Successful treatment reveals a group of cultural dynamics on how this therapeutic alliance might affect treatment outcomes. To meet these complex cultural challenges, the movement towards a pluralistic cultural framework of helping with its bilingual and bicultural sensitivity appears to be a significant variable to engage the community and the individual in the healing process. Environmental exposures, such as pollution, high-crime areas, and lack of parks or playgrounds, social services, such as transportation, housing, and childcare, mental health care, significantly impact on lifestyle choices. Building strong, grassroots recovery community organizations (RCOs) and linking RCOs into a national movement to develop recovery leaders, offer many opportunities for the recovery community. It helps people in recovery, family members, friends, and allies to express their collective individual and neighborhood voices on issues of common concern by providing a forum for recovery-focused community services that support individual growth.

  • COVID’s impact on surgical training

    With the COVID pandemic sweeping across the globe [1], over 1240,000 people have been infected in India (as of July 23,2020 ) in India. With approximately 30,000 deaths, the nation has been reeling under the ravages of COVID 19, and the economic fallout that followed in its wake. Tamil Nadu has over 1,80,000 cases with approximately 3144 deaths (23/07/2020). In this unfavourable milieu, surgical postgraduates joined the course through the process of NEET selection and counselling. Given that social distancing was essential, meet and greet, introduction and case based discussions are held on online platforms such as Google Meet and ZOOM.

  • Anger and Aggression in Gambling Disorder

    Higher rates of anger and aggression have been observed in problem gamblers. In this cross-sectional study the relationship between anger, aggression and a community sample of problem gamblers was examined within two subtypes of gambling: Perceived Skill Gambling (sports, cards, track) and Chance Gambling (bingo, lotteries, slot machines) gambling. Aggression and anger were assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) and the Trait Anger Scale (TAS), respectively. Results indicated that Perceived Skill Gamblers (i.e., sports, card, track) scored higher on expressing anger on the AQ as well as on the hostility, physical and verbal and aggression subscales of the TAS. There were no sex differences on any AQ subscale except for the Physical Aggression Subscale. We did not find gender differences on the TAS. The study shows evidence that Perceived Skill Gamblers experience more anger, hostility, physical and verbal aggression as measured by the AQ. The current findings contribute to an improved understanding of the complexity of the factors that are implicated in gambling disorder, and suggests that anger and aggression should be routinely assessed among disordered gamblers seeking treatment.

  • Subjective Well-being and Engagement in Leisure Sports Events:an Illustration of Annual 100km Hike in China

    Leisure sports events are increasingly popular in China and have an important economic and cultural impact on urban Chinese society. Taking the 100-kilometer Hike Through Shenzhen as an example, the purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the dimensions of service quality, leisure involvement, satisfaction and subjective well-being by using a structural equation modelling (SEM). Results show that environment, interaction and outcomes each has a significant positive impact on service quality. It was also found that service quality of the event has a significant impact on participants’ happiness by positively affecting their leisure involvement and satisfaction. Results suggest that marketing campaigns with an emotional component can deepen participants’ sense of identity in regard to events, enhance individuals’ physical well-being and promote a ‘healthy China’.

  • Modelling Predictors of Gambling Harms with Stochastic Search Variable Selection (SSVS)

    The purpose of the present study was to introduce stochastic search variable selection (SSVS) as a procedure to identify a subset of important predictors of gambling harm. The target set of predictors were dimensions of trait impulsivity, gambling cognitions, and gambling motivations. Five types of gambling harm (feeling one has a personal problem; social criticism; feeling guilt; health; and, financial) were measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Casino patrons completed the measures. As a first step, we identified the significant predictors that would be included in modelling an aggregate harm score. The most important predictors, the cognition that one is not able to stop gambling, and the motivation to escape or avoid life stressors, were positively associated with overall harm. Two weaker, but statistically significant, predictors were negatively associated with harm: sensation-seeking and illusion of control. Although a perceived inability to stop gambling was the most important predictor of each individual harm, the pattern of predictors varied across harms. For example, sensation-seeking was an important predictor only for the belief that one has a gambling problem, and escape/avoidance motivation was strongly predictive of financial harm. The results suggest that primary interventions designed to mitigate harm should address the belief that the gambler is unable to stop gambling, and motivations related to escape/avoid life stressors. Other interventions would be tailored to the specific harms experience by the gambler.

  • Endoscopic Outcome of non complicated Gastric Ulcer following Standard Medical Treatment in sub-Saharan African Population

    Background.The endoscopic outcome of gastric ulcers is not well described in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was therefore conducted in order to track the endoscopic outcome of non complicated gastric ulcers following standard medical treatment in sub-Saharan African population. Methods.This was a prospective cohort study conducted from January to July 2018 in three tertiary healthcare centers in Yaounde (Cameroon).Gastric ulcers and gastric H. pylori infection were diagnosed and monitored by upper digestive endoscopy performed before and at least four weeks following treatment with proton pump inhibitors alone or combined with antibiotics depending on H. pylori status. A complete case analysis was done using the SPSS software, version 21.0. p-values ≤0.05 were considered as significant. Results. Ninety-six patients (54.2% males) with a mean age of 55.3 ± 14.9 years were initially enrolled. In most patients, the ulcer frequently was unique (76%) and the antrum was the commonest localization 76 (79.2%). Among patients with H. pylori infection, the quadruple therapy was the most prescribed treatment 41 (87.2%) patients. There were 60 (62.5%) subjects lost to follow-up. Of the 36 (37.5%) patients who underwent repeat endoscopy, 26 (72.2%) had ulcer healing and 8/13 patients had successful H. pylori eradication. A delay of repeat endoscopy >8 weeks was the only predictor of non-healing of the ulcer: relative risk 0.6[95% CI: 0.3-1.08], p = 0.05. Conclusion.Ulcer healing was found in nearly 2/3 of patients and H. pylori eradication in almost ¾ of patients. This study should be repeated in a large sample.


    The major responsibility of human resources is to facilitate service provision and delivery. Libraries in the polytechnic system, are established to provide high quality information services in support of teaching and research for academic staff members as well as acquisition of knowledge of students. The study was carried out for the purpose of determining the relationship between organizational communication and staff performance in State polytechnic libraries in North Central, Nigeria. A correlational survey design was used to find out the relationship between organizational communication and staff performance in the State polytechnic libraries in North Central, Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of one hundred and eight (108) professionals (librarians), para-professionals (library officers) and non-professionals (computer operators and Administrative staff) in the State polytechnic libraries in the North Central, Nigeria. Since the population is not too large to manage, there was no sampling. Questionnaire and interview were used for data collection. Out of the 108 copies of questionnaire distributed, 94 copies were returned and used for data analysis. This gave a response rate of 87%. The data collected were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Coefficient for answering research question 2 while mean and standard deviation were used to answer questions 1, 3 and 4 . The responses from the interview were analyzed qualitatively while regression analysis was used to test the two null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicate that the value of correlation coefficient(r) of Organizational Communication is 0.257 showing low relationship between Organizational Communication and Staff performance. The study also showed that the problems that militate against staff performance in the state polytechnic libraries are, among others, the absence of effective communication between the leadership and the staff, no opportunity for team work, supervisors don’t listening ears to their subordinates, etc. The recommendations include; written…

  • Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis by Crude Topical Sesame Seed Oil in Comparison with Crude Topical Pumpkin Seed Oil

    Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common disease of the oral mucosa in the general population. Multifactorial etiopathogenesis has been suggested to explain the cause of RAS but the exact etiology and pathogenesis still unknown. Its therapy whether topical or systemic can induce clearance but the relapse rate is high. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and prophylactic effects of topical Sesame seed oil in comparison with Pumpkin seed oil in the management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Patients and Methods: This is a single, blinded, clinical, therapeutic, comparative study where 35 patients with early onset RAS were examined in Center of Dermatology -Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Medical City ,Baghdad, Iraq from April 2018-October 2019. All socio-demographic data related to the disease was obtained from each patient, in addition to clinical examination was performed for each patient. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group A (15 patients) used crude Sesame seed oil twice daily. Group B (20 patients) was instructed to use Pumpkin seed oil in a similar way to Group A. Short term assessment of each patient of both groups was done to evaluate the therapeutic effect of drug by using oral clinical manifestation index (OCMI). A long term assessment was done for each patient to assess the prophylactic effect of drug by using OCMI before, after 1, 2 and 3 months of therapy. They were seen regularly to record any local or systemic side effects. Results: The patients enrolled in this study were 19 (54.3%) males and 16(45.7%) females, male to female ratio was 1.1: 1. Their ages ranged from 12-60 (35.33 ± 12.06) years. The mean of OCMI in Group A started to decline directly after 4 days of therapy and went to its lower level after 8 days of therapy, and it was statistically significant (P value


    Background: The global request for the minimally invasive treatments lowering down ageing process grows. The author conducted a study introducing a new approach in this field. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate, using 3D photosystem the effect of the sequential applications of biostimulating peeling device and booster injections in facial rejuvenation. Patients and methods: The protocol consists in the sequential application of a special peeling solution with an innovative formulation following by intradermal injections of a booster solution on 10 healthy volunteers (mean age 52) once a week for 6 weeks (one week peeling, one week booster). After 8 weeks of treatment objective evaluation was made using 3D photosystem with considerations of wrinkles, pores and uniformity of the skin. Results: The treatment protocol was found by patients not painful, pleasurable with no downtime. No side effects were reported during or after study conclusion. All parameters (wrinkles, pores, skin uniformity) improved 8 weeks after the protocol administration. The improvement of pore condition from T1 (score 3,37) to T2 (score 4,57) was 1,2 points, wrinkle condition from T1 (3,47) to T2 (5,93) was 2,46 points, uniformity of the skin from T1 (2,53) to T1 (4,03) was 1,5 points. The average improvement from T1 (3,12) to T2 (4,85) was 1,73 points.