The use of central neuraxial anaesthesia for lumbar laminectomy is evolving in our centre with its attendant advantages like decrease in intraoperative blood loss, peri-operative cardiac ischemic incidents, postoperative hypoxic episodes, arterial and venous thrombosis, and it provides longer/ adequate postoperative pain control. Nonetheless, blindness a possible complication under general anaesthesia is preventable with regional anaesthesia, this is because patient is awake and there is no restriction in neck movement. This case series helps to provide feasibility of lumbar laminectomy under central neuraxial anaesthesia (spinal, epidural and combined spinal epidural anaesthesia).
The Implementation of OECD Corporate Governance Principles in Nigeria: Evidence from Stakeholders’ Perspectives
This study investigates the stakeholders’ perspectives on the implementation of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) corporate governance principles in Nigeria. The study adopted an ex-post research design with a structured questionnaire to elicit information from the respondents. The descriptive statistical method was also considered as analytical techniques. Findings revealed that shareholders in Nigerian firms have the right to participate in profits of the firm; they have the right to vote in general meetings and also have the right to obtain information about voting rights before purchase of shares. However, the study found that the details about the capital structure, financial and operating reports of firms were not fully disclosed. It was also discovered from the study that ownership transfer among shareholders was poorly facilitated, with minority shareholders not fairly treated. The study concludes that board of directors usually takes the interest of shareholders’ more important than the stakeholders interest in the firms. It was however suggested that corporate governance framework in Nigeria should recognize the rights of stakeholders established by law or through mutual agreements; and encourage wealth creation and employment opportunities for sound financial sustainability of corporate firms.
The performance of an animal for a particular trait is the result of its genetic merit and the effects of the environment where it exists. To set up genetic improvement in sheep, the genetic component attributed to the trait of interest need to be defined. The aim of this review was to describe major candidate genes influencing growth traits and prolificacy in sheep. Although growth and prolificacy are quantitative traits and are expected to be influenced by many genes with individual genes contributing small effects, there are major genes that have been identified with significant influence on growth and prolificacy. The CLPG, GDF8 and CAST genes are some of the major genes that have strong influence on sheep growth and carcass quality. The CLPG mutation can cause pronounced effect in the muscle found in the hindquarter and is responsible for the muscular hypertrophy phenotype in sheep. The GDF8 gene also play important role in increasing muscle depth due to mutation in the regulatory region and coding sequences. The CAST gene is an endogenous and specific inhibitor of calpain enzyme and thereby regulates the rate and extent of muscle tenderization following slaughtering. For prolificacy, BMP15, GDF9 and BMPR1B have been shown to exert significant influence on ovulation rate and litter size in various sheep breeds in the world. Both of the three genes are member of the TGF-beta family protein that encode protein product responsible for growth, differentiation and proliferation of ovarian follicles. The mechanism of action for such major genes are associated with the existence of mutation in the coding sequence resulting amino acid change as well as in the regulatory region that vary the expression level and inheritance of the genes. Up to now, better attempts have been made to describe the genetic basis of growth and prolificacy in…
This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of coccidia infestation on biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. The experimental animals (n=100) were randomly allocated into four equal groups, group one (G-I), group two (G-II), group three (G-III) and group four (G-IV) with 25 chickens in each group. The G-I, G-II, and G-III were treatments groups challenged by different Eimeria sporulated oocysts, while G-IV served as the control group. In this study, the infective dose of E. tenella (G-I), E. acervulina(G-II) and mixed Eimeria spp (G-III)was 2×104 sporulated Eimeria oocyst inoculated orally at three weeks of age in broiler chicken and subsequent alterations in different plasma biochemical constituents were evaluated at interval of 5 , 7 and 9 day of post inoculation. Serum total protein values after challenge showed statistically significant decrease in group one, group two and group three in comparison with group four. Further, significant decrease total protien value was noticed on 7 day of post infection in group one and group two.The mean values of serum glucose between the infected and control group at 5, 7 and 9 day of post infection which revealed non-statistically significant difference. Coccidiosis due to E. tenella, E. acervulina and mixed identified Eimeria spp. infectionin chicken showed highly statistically significant increase in serum ALT and AST level as compared with control group. This was also significant increase in infected group on 7 day of post infection. But, no significant variation among the infected groups were on 5 and 9 day of post infection.
Effects of Dried Centella Asiatica Leaf Meal as a Herbal Feed Additive on the Growth Performance, Heamatology And Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken
A 42 days experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of dried Centella asiatica leaf meal (CSP) as an herbal feed additive on the growth performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicken. A total of 200 Ross 308 day old broiler chicks of mixed sex was divided into four (4) treatment groups of fifty (50) birds, each group was further divided into five replicates each of ten (10) birds. Group A was fed basal diet + 0% CPS (control), group B,C and D were fed basal diet + 2%, 4% and 6% CPS respectively. The basal diet was formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of birds according to NRC (1994). Feed and water was provided unrestricted and a completely randomized design and birds were vaccinated according to the prevailing disease in the environment. The results obtained showed that there were significant (p0.05) the daily feed intake and mortality rate. All the hematological (PCV, Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, WBC and its differentials) and serum biochemical parameters (Albumin, globulin, total protein, SGPT and SGOT) were not significantly (p>0.05) different among the treatments.
Electronic Procedural Reporting for Colonoscopy; Challenges (Discrepancies) in Data Entry and Report Generation
Aims: Computerized reporting systems that generate standardized endoscopy reports are available and facilitate easy retrieval of data for quality assurance review. We aim to compare the accuracy of extracted database fields in our reporting system (endoPRO) for key measures of quality to the final edited endoscopy report for colonoscopy procedures. Methods: In a retrospective analysis, we compared data retrieved from endoPRO to the final colonoscopy reports at Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS). The data included demographics, indications for procedures, bowel prep quality, findings, extent of exam, and recommendations. Discrepancies, changes or missing information pertaining to key quality indicators for colonoscopies were recorded. Results: In total, 1843 colonoscopy procedures were done at HHS from January to March 2010, and reports for 592 colonoscopies, randomly selected, were analyzed for this study. Discrepancies were seen in: Indication – 34 cases (5.7%), Assistants present during colonoscopy – 94 cases (15.9%), Quality of bowel preparation – 35 cases (5.9%), Findings & impressions – 38 cases (6.4%) including polyps, inflammation, diverticulosis and haemorrhoids. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the variability between data found in patients’ final colonoscopy reports and data retrieved from the endoscopy databases. Structured endoscopy reporting and the use of databases facilitate quality assurance but editing of procedure reports after structured data entry compromises accuracy of the data in key quality measures. Inaccurate or incomplete data recording will compromise the enhancements in quality assurance that would accrue otherwise from regular audit processes.
Information Sources and Utilization of Library Resources and Services by the Students of Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
The study investigates information sources and utilization of library resources and services in Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Three objectives and three research questions were formulated for the study. The study covered students of the Federal University Otuoke. Survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was 297 students out of which two hundred and ninety five (295) was completed for analysis. Accidental sampling technique was used for the study. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for all the three research questions. The finding of the study shows that there is a positive relationship between availability and utilization of library resources and services. There is a positive relationship between availability and utilization of library resources and services. There is a positive relationship between availability and utilization of library resources and services. The study was recommended that the librarian should endeavor to stock the library with those information resources which are in high request as this would lead to increased utilization by the library patrons. Librarians should ensure that library resources with subject scope, fact and concepts are acquired as this would boost all information resources acquired by the library. There should be a database that provides information resources which enables library patrons to search for information electronically.
Perception of Child-bearing Women on Child Spacing Information in Polygamous Homes in Kusfa Area of Zaria City, Nigeria
Maternal mortality is a major cause of concern in developing countries. To reduce maternal mortality several public health agencies diffused child spacing information to the public. However, while most people accept and use child spacing information there remain some individuals that are resistant to it especially in developing countries. Resistance to information about child spacing is a major public health issue in developing countries, particularly in Nigeria. Using Chatman’s (2000) theory of normative behavior as a theoretical framework to guide the investigation. This study therefore set out to explore the perception of child-bearing women on child spacing information in polygamous homes in Kusfa Zaria City. A qualitative research methodology was adopted. Data were collected using in-depth interview with ten child-bearing women. Purposive sampling was used to identify respondents. To be included as respondent the following three criteria must be met: 1) have to be child-bearing women in polygamous homes in Kusfa Area of Zaria city, 2) 20-45 years of age and 3) must have a minimum of four children over the last six years. Data from respondents were analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed that, injection, pills, condom, IUD and implant were the type of child spacing information communicated to child-bearing women and perceived these type of child spacing information with apprehension and suspicion. This study posit that for a sustained acceptance and use of child spacing information there is the critical need for policy makers and information professionals to design child spacing information services based on the social and cultural dynamics of the Kusfa community Zaria city.
Negative Experiences of Flood Victims and the Roles of Librarians and Mental Health Counselors: A Qualitative Case Study of Flood Victims in Kaduna State, Nigeria
Flood is one of the unwanted disasters human beings experience on this earth. In order to propose for post-traumatic therapies for flood victims, this study was set up to find out the negative experiences of flood victims in Kaduna state Nigeria during and after flood disasters that occurred in 24th August, 2018. Specifically, the role of Librarians and mental health Counselors can play to cope with the undesirable experience. In order to achieve these unique objectives, qualitative research methodology was adopted and interviewed ten (10) participants. Findings of this study revealed that shocked and confused Stranded Lost of valuable materials mocking from neighborhood were the negative experiences of flood victims in Kaduna state Nigeria during and after flood disasters that occurred in 24th August, 2018. Finally, the researchers proposed some recommendations for practical intervention.