Introduction: In the epidemiological transition experienced by Brazil, the prevalence of infectious-contagious diseases is still evident. Among them, leprosy is a public health problem whose main etiological agent is Mycobacterium leprae. It is a common pathology in developing countries. Methodology: Descriptive and retrospective study, with data collection from 2006 to 2013, coming from the National System of Information of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). Results: 93 cases of leprosy were reported in the period covered by the data search. Resulting in an average detection of 1.5 cases / 10,000 inhabitants / year. According to the analysis of the data obtained, there was a predominance of male cases (51.61%), urban residents (60.22%), age range from 30 to 39 years (23.66%), as Dimorfa being the most reported Clinical Form (39.78%). Conclusions / Considerations: It is expected that new strategies and actions will be implemented, or revised, as more specific measures for the prevention and control of leprosy in the municipality of Limoeiro, Pernambuco.
Histomorphometric Analysis Of Reepitelization And Collagen Matrix Of Cutaneous Wounds Treated With Hydroalcoolic Extract From The Leaves Of Conocarpus Erectus Linnaeus
Introduction: The species Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus belonging to the Combretaceae Family, that contains 18 genera, where the genus Combretum is considered to be the largest distributed on the whole African continent, possessing about 370 species that are abundantly used in folk medicine due to its chemical diversity, its low toxicity and low cost. The species of this family are widely used as a therapeutic resource for various types of pains, colds, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, pneumonia, mumps, cancer, hypertension, infections and wound treatment. The wound healing is a process that involves the performance of several cell types, extracellular matrix and chemical mediators, in order to promote tissue reconstitution. Objective: To evaluate reepithelialization and collagen deposition through the histomorphometry of the scar tissue treated with the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus. Methodology: For the general outline of the experiment, male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into four groups: Group I (Negative Control – Lanette Cream); Group II (10% FHFCS – Cream formulation of the hydroalcoholic extract of dry leaves C. erectus); Group III (Cream formulation of the hydroalcoholic extract of fresh leaves of C. erectus) and Group IV (Dexpanthenol – Standard). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups with five animals for euthanasia on the 7th and 21st day. The animals were previously anesthetized with a combination of ketamine and xylazine and were later placed in a ventral decubitus for manual trichotomy and antisepsis with 0.1% iodized alcohol, the area of incidence was marked using a metal punch with a cutting blade (± 10 mm²). Then, the treatments were started and a new layer (± 95 mg) was applied daily. Histological preparations were submitted to Hematoxylin-Eosin technique. The histological images were captured by a digital camera coupled to an optical microscope, obtaining 06 fields per slide with…
Histomorphometric Evaluation Of The Effect Of Semi-Solid Formulation Of Conocarpus Erectus Leaves On Fibroblasts And Inflammatory Cells In The Process Of Tissue Remodeling
Introduction: The wound can be defined as a skin lesion caused by chemical, physical or biological factors leading to cutaneous discontinuity. Based on the healing process, the evolution of the wounds can be mentioned as acute and chronic. Healing is the tissue repair process coordinated by biochemical and histological factors to restore tissue integrity. Since ancient times, medicinal plants have been used as a therapeutic resource, contributing to the treatment and prevention of various diseases. The species Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus, popularly known as “mangue de botão”, is found in the mangrove and stands out for presenting analgesic, anticancer, antimicrobial and hepatoprotective properties. Objective: Evaluate the ability of semi-solid formulations of C. erectus leaves through the histomorphometry of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells in the tissue remodeling process of cutaneous wounds in Wistar rats. Methodology: For the evaluation of the cicatrizant activity were obtained formulations containing 10% of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dry and fresh leaves of C. erectus (FHFCS and FHFCF 10%, respectively), manipulated within the standards and quality control for medicaments in the Laboratory of Pharmacotoxicological Prospecting of Bioactive Products of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. To evaluate the healing activity, excisional cutaneous wounds were surgically made in the dorsal midline of the cervical region of Wistar rats (n = 5), these were standardized (6 mm²) and performed with animals previously anesthetized, after tricotomy and adequate antisepsis. Then, the wounds were treated with daily topical application (± 95 mg) of the preparations according to the experimental design: Group I (Negative Control – Lanette Cream); Group II (10% FHFCS); Group III (10% FHFCF); Group IV (Dexpanthenol – Positive Control) for 14 days. The histological preparations were submitted to a staining technique by Hematoxylin-Eosin (H.E.) for counting inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. The histological images were captured by digital camera coupled to the…
Econometric Analysis of Macro Influencing Factors of Housing Prices in China – Comparison of two period data based on EVIEWS
As one of the pillar industries of the country, the real estate industry has developed rapidly under the influence of the market economy and people’s needs.The rising housing prices have brought a serious burden to the residents. The introduction of relevant regulatory policies has not significantly inhibited the high housing prices.Therefore, this paper takes the two periods of 1992-2001 and 2006-2015 as the two stages of real estate development and rapid development. The real estate price is the research object, and the relevant economic influence factors are selected from the macroscopic point of view.This paper analyzes and tests through Eviews software and establishes appropriate regression models to determine the main macro factors that affect housing prices.According to the comprehensive analysis of the results of the two-stage model, it is found that the money supply is always one of the factors of housing prices, and the influence is increasing. At the same time, the consumer price index has a great influence on the housing prices in 1992-2001. However, in 2006-2015 this factor was relatively reduced or even not.Finally, this paper proposes relevant policy recommendations for housing prices regulation through analysis results.
Addiction is a maladaptive pattern of drug abuse including alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, sedatives, hypnotics and anxiolytics, stimulants, tobacco and others that persists despite negative consequences. An article of New England Journal of Medicine says “addiction is a disease of the brain” whereas another leading journal specifies “Genetics contributes significantly to vulnerability to this disorder”. Neurological changes observed in long-term substance abusers are nearly identical to those seen in people struggling with obesity, porn aficionados, gamblers, internet “addicts”, compulsive shoppers and simply those involved in intense romantic relationships. As with many other brain diseases, addiction has embedded behavioral and social-context aspects that are important parts of the disorder itself. An increased incidence of addiction is clearly a reflection of social demoralization. In countries like Bangladesh, people are easily demoralized because of social or peer influence. And widespread corruption, creating severe social injustices, various types of criminal activities is very common here. Issues of moral value declines in common people are expressed in many literatures. Frustration, unemployment, lack of recreation facilities and bad companionship are the epic reasons of drug addiction among youth in this country.
The development of information and communication technologies has reached a level where their use in government is becoming not only expedient but also inevitable. The Internet and ICT have created the technical and technological foundation that can significantly improve the efficiency of public administration, provide businesses and citizens with access to necessary information, simplify bureaucratic procedures and reduce the time for decision making. This article describes the new conditions in which the business is developing. The article presents the features of the interaction of e-government and business, the impact of e-government on the development of the economy as a whole. The authors analyzed the process of development of technologies for e-government. They reformulate the term “e-government” based on the definitions presented in the literature. The authors identified the tasks that are solved by means of e-government. Also, the authors set up indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of the e-government. Finally, the structure of the quality standard for e-government services was suggested. The implementation of the e-government demonstrates advantages for the further development of the economic sector and whole state in general.
With the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), biological risk factors, such as hyperglycemia, are a major public health concern in Bangladesh. Optimization of diabetes management by positive lifestyle changes is urgently required for prevention of comorbidities and complications, which in turn will reduce the cost. Diabetes had 2 times more days of inpatient treatment, 1.3 times more outpatient visits, and nearly 10 times more medications than non- diabetes patients, as reported by British Medical Journal. And surprisingly, 80% of people with this so called “Rich Man’s Disease” live in low- and middle-income countries. According to a recent study of American Medical Association, China and India collectively are home of nearly 110 million diabetic patients. The prevalence of diabetes in this region is projected to increase by 71% by 2035. Bangladesh was ranked as the 8th highest diabetic populous country in the time period of 2010-2011. In Bangladesh, the estimated prevalence of diabetes among adults was 9.7% in 2011 and the number is projected to be 13.7 million by 2045. The cost of diabetes care is considerably high in Bangladesh, and it is primarily driven by the medicine and hospitalization costs. According to Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, in 2017 the annual average cost per T2DM was $864.7, which is 52% of per capita GDP of Bangladesh and 9.8 times higher than the general health care cost. Medicine is the highest source of direct cost (around 85%) for patients without hospitalization. The private and public financing of diabetes treatment will be severely constrained in near future, representing a health threat for the Bangladeshi population.
LAPAROSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY FOR SUPER – SUPER OBESE PATIENTS (BMI>60 KG/M2) – SINGLE INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE
Background: According to the official WHO publications, obesity became one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century. In addition to causing various physical disabilities and psychological problems, excess weight drastically increases a person’s risk of developing a number of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. The risk of developing more than one of these diseases (co-morbidity) also increases with body weight gain. Obesity is already responsible for 2–8% of health costs and 10–13% of death cases and the numbers rise progressively. Objective: To perform retrospective analysis of medical records data of patients with very specific range of morbid obesity (super-super obesity- BMI >60) with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and systematized preoperative criteria and morbid risk for surgical treatment. Methods: Our study includes group of 13 patients with BMI>60 kg/m2. All patients taking part in the program for treatment of morbid obesity meet the criteria of the national regulatory health system. LSG was performed following official description. We conducted a 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 60 months follow up of patient’s status and evaluation of quality of life, and we presented the percentage of excess weight loss (EWL). Results: Evaluation of preoperative consultations and clinical examinations permitted to perform as first step Laparoscopic SG for all patients. Postoperative results were very satisfying for nine of our (69 %) patients. Three patients after interval of 10-15 months obtained complementary second step operation – duodenal switch. We found that LSG is effective procedure for SSO patients. Conclusion: The group of Super-super obese patients is very specific because conservative treatment is usually not effective, limited and only weight loss surgery may propose acceptable results. Patients with BMI super to 60 kg /m2 presented satisfying results of LSG, their co-morbidities are not absolutely contraindications, and only well conducted preoperative and…
Gastrointestinal manifestations in patient with Common Variable Immunodeficiency Syndrome (CVID): A Case Report
A 57 yo male with a background history of common variable Immunodeficiency syndrome (CVID) on Immunoglobulin Infusion (Kiovig) 40mg three weekly was referred for investigation of diarrhoea and follow up from previous history of colonic polyps. Colonoscopy showed an irregular looking ileocaecal valve (ICV) with an adjacent flat polyp (Paris IIa). Biopsies showed low grade dysplasia. There was also a duodenal polyp noted on gastroscopy and biopsy again showed low grade dysplasia. In light of the findings of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract polyps, a small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) was arranged. This showed an irregular area of mucosa in the proximal small bowel with significant ulceration and inflammation (Figure 1). There were also multiple scattered lymphagiectasias and lymphoid hyperplasia in the distal small bowel (Figure 2). Anterograde double ballon enteroscopy (ADBE) was subsequently performed to the distal jejunum about 8 weeks after the SBCE. The duodenal polyp seen at gastroscopy was visualised during ADBE (Figure 3). In addition, two diminutive (
Efficacy Of Potassium-Competitive Acid Blocker vs Proton Pump Inhibitor as First-Line and Second-Line Treatment for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication
Introduction: Eradication of H. pylori reduced the risk of gastric cancer by 75%, thus, its therapy with high eradication rates is needed. Nowadays, the success rate of H.pylori eradication regimen (PPI-based) has dropped to less than 75% due to clarithromycin resistance and inadequate gastric acid suppression. Vonoprazan, a Potassium-competitive acid blocker (PCAB) was released for use in first-line and second-line treatment for H.pylori eradication. It shows better acid suppression effect in acid-related disease. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of PCAB and PPI as first-line and second-line treatment for H. pylori eradication. Method: We search the Medline, Google Scholar and Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) databases in October 2019. The study selection process was plotted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram. Results: In studies assessing first-line therapy, 776 patient were using PPI and 965 patient were using PCAB. In first-line therapy, PCAB has higher ITT and PP compared to PPI. According to Sue et al, in PPI group, more patient complain of diarrhea (49 vs 25; p < 0.001). In studies assessing second-line therapy, 1,069 patient were using PPI and 605 patient were using PCAB. Two studies showed no significant differences between PCAB and PPI in second-line therapy, but one study showed PCAB superiority (ITT PPI vs PCAB 85% vs 90% p=0.045; PP PPI vs PCAB 91% vs 96% p=0.008). There is no difference in adverse event between PCAB and PPI. Conclusion: In conclusion, PCAB has higher eradication rate (ITT and PP) compared to PPI as first-line therapy for H.pylori eradication. Further study is still needed in comparing efficacy of PCAB and PPI as second-line therapy. Both therapies were safe and well tolerated.