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  • Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Epilepsy in Childhood: A Prospective Cross Sectional Study from Sudan

    Background: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting around 1% of children. The incidence in Sudan is likely to be higher given the high rate of genetic disorders related to consanguity and acquired disorders caused by CNS infection and birth injury. Epilepsy can be idiopathic or non-idiopathic, symptomatic epilepsy indicates a known cause while cryptogenic epilepsy implies a presumed unknown cause. Objective: To understand the demographic and clinical characteristics of epilepsy in children in the setting of a tertiary epilepsy clinic in Khartoum, Sudan. Methods: This is a hospital-based cross sectional study recruiting patients with epilepsy attending a tertiary pediatric neurology clinic. All patients attending the clinic in the 6 month period were included. Data was collected by medical students and was analyzed on IBM SPSS Version 20.0 in a descriptive fashion. Results: 284 Children were recruited. The mean age for children with epilepsy was 5.74 (range 0-12 Years). Females constituted 59.9%; while 94.7% of patients were of low socioeconomic status. The most common type of seizures found were generalized tonic clinic at 51.8% (147/284), followed by focal seizures at 21.1% (60/284). 71% of our patients (201/284) had no identifiable cause (idiopathic), while 29% were non-idiopathic. Of the non-idiopathic group; 41% were due to congenital anomalies, followed by HIE at 24.1%, infections at 16.9% trauma at 10.8% and tumors at 7.2%. Only 18.3% (52/284) had a positive family history of epilepsy. Conclusions: There appears to be a higher incidence of epilepsy in Children with low socio – economic status with a slight female predominance. The incidence of idiopathic epilepsy appears to be similar to inter-national figures. We recommend broader community based and long-term studies for better understanding of epilepsy in Sudan.

  • A challenging diagnosis in a patient with Odynophagia

    Tuberculous retropharyngeal abscesses are rare but potentially life-threatening manifestations of tuberculosis. We present herein a case of an 18-year-old male patient, a migrant from Somalia, accusing fever, odynophagia and neck pain. CT scan and MRI study of the neck showed a retropharyngeal and prevertebral abscess from C1 to D1 with the involvement of epidural space and spondylitis. Resolution of the abscess with few signs of residual spondylitis was achieved after surgical evacuation and antitubercular treatment.

  • Acute Demyelinating Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following rabies vaccination

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Its diagnosis can be challenging due to having varied clinical presentations, including a range of motor, speech, cognitive, and behavioral changes that can vary in frequency and intensity, and there being no strictly defined diagnostic criteria for it in adults. Here we present a 58-year-old White male who developed ADEM following an uncommon cause (i.e., rabies vaccination), which was difficult to diagnose due to atypical manifestations.

  • Fibromyalgia as A Sole First Presentation of Recurring Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in a child. A Case Report and Literature Review

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) with no evidence of brain pathology, also known as pseudo tumor cerebri. Headache and visual obscuration are the most common presenting symptoms for IIH with a frequency of (68-84%) respectively. Other symptoms of IIH include neck pain, back pain, and radicular pain in the arms and legs resulting from increased spinal pressure and forced filling of the spinal nerves with CSF. Case summary: We present an 11-year-old boy known to have chronic kidney disease stage II, due to obstructive uropathy. He had a history of Idiopathic intracranial hypertension that was treated completely and condition resolved, then presented with generalized pains and aches without headaches or visual symptoms and found to have IIH for the second time, the symptoms resolved with appropriate treatment. Conclusion: Widespread pain and several other characteristics of IIH share similarities with characteristics of fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), two overlapping chronic pain conditions.

  • Development and Test of Grain Mass Flow Monitoring System Based on Pressure Sensor

    In view of the technical development requirements of digital agriculture and the requirement of operation parameter regulation in the operation process of grain harvester. An on-board grain mass flow monitoring system based on pressure sensor was developed. The mathematical model of grain mass and grain flow pressure was established, which realized the real-time measurement, display, and storage of grain dry/wet quality information during the operation of grain harvester. An indoor bench test was carried out with the independently developed grain flow monitoring test bench. The results showed that the output error of the grain mass flow monitoring system was less than 4.25% under the conditions of indoor bench test, which meets the accuracy requirements of grain flow monitoring and provides the decision basis for variable seeding and variable fertilization.

  • Terpenoids and steroids isolated from Calophyllum polyanthum

    Three triterpenoids, one diterpenoid and two steroids were isolated from the aerial parts of Calophyllum polyathum. The structure-s of these compounds were determined by 1D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 4 was obtained for the first time from Calophyllum polyathum.

  • Mesothelial Cyst in a Young Female: Case report and literature review

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal benign tumors (1 in 100,000 cases in adults) with various clinical presentations. [1,2] They commonly originate from the small bowel mesentery, although a proportion has been found to originate from the mesocolon, and retroperitoneum. [1,3] The formation of mesenteric cysts depends on the histologic origin, where they could be classified into cysts of lymphatic origin, cysts of mesothelial origin, cysts of enteric origin, cysts of urogenital origin, dermoid cysts and pseudocysts. [4,5] Diagnosis is extremely difficult since. The Mesenteric cyst is usually asymptomatic, but if symptomatic, abdominal pain (82%), nausea and vomiting (45%), constipation (27%) are the most common presenting symptoms. [2,3] The clinical finding of abdominal mass is encountered in more than 61% of the patients. [2,3]. As this condition is very rare and its symptomatology can resemble any other abdominal diseases, diagnosis is extremely difficult and incorrect preoperative diagnosis is often made. Hence, performing physical examination and conducting radiological investigations such as ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) are important in making a correct diagnosis. [2,3] As well as cases of mesothelial cysts, they are typically asymptomatic but occasionally, their symptoms are vague and non-specific. [6,7] As mentioned above, imaging modalities such as USG, CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are great in identifying the character, size, location, surrounding tissues and the wall and content of the cysts. [7] Surgery is the treatment of choice, as a complete resection with negative borders is curative and often prevents recurrence. [3] We report a case of a young female patient who presented with a vague abdominal symptoms and a large cystic mass in lower abdomen. After proper evaluation, surgical exploration revealed a large simple mesothelial cyst.

  • Determining the location of River Dam Group based on set cover Model: A case study of Zambezi River Basin

    Taking the Zambezi River Basin as a typical case, this paper studied the location problem of dam group. Based on the topographical and elevation maps of the Zambezi River Basin, we evaluated each region by five indicators (Water head difference elevation, Geological environment, Climatic environment, Population distribution and Biodiversity), and selected the 22 candidate dam sites. Meanwhile, the relative feasibility index of dam construction is calculated by the entropy weight-grey correlation analysis. On this basis, combined with the water management capacity of the dam, a set coverage model of dam selection is established, and the neighborhood adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm (NAPSO) is used to solve the 12 most suitable dam sites. Comparing with the water management capacity of the original Kariba Dam, the new dams’ water storage and flood control capacity, hydroelectric power generation capacity, domestic water supply capacity and other water supply capacity have been increased by 235.92%, 250.62%, 189.66% and 223.61% respectively. Our study can provide some guidance for the site selection project of river dam group.


    CALR mutations, together with JAK-2 and MPL ones, are recognized as “driver” mutations in Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Most frequent CALR mutations are Type-1 deletions (45-55% of cases) and type-2 insertion (32-42% of cases). These mutations are usually associated with younger age, higher platelet counts, lower leukocyte counts, lower hemoglobin levels and a higher incidence of transformation from ET to MF. Recognizing and describing cases with different mutations can be useful to create a database that might help clinicians to include these patients in risk categories and to guide the appropriate therapeutic choices. We report a case of a 77-years old woman who presented a new type-2 like CALR mutation.

  • The wood decomposition system and community diversity of fungi

    Fungi are critical agents of the global carbon cycle, however, our ability to link fungal community composition to ecosystem functioning is constrained by a limited understanding the wood decomposition rates of fungus. Here we examined the wood decomposition rate of fungus and the impact of fungal community diversity on the wood decomposing. To understand the relationship between the wood decomposition rate and the traits of fungi, we introduced 37 types of fungus into the wood decomposition system and set the growth rate and moisture tolerance of fungus as the explanatory variables. In addition, we constructed the competition, parasitic and symbiotic model based on Malthus-block growth comprehensive to analyze and predict the interactions between different fungus. The entropy weight-TOPSIS model was established to understand the biodiversity of fungus and obtain the relative dominance degree which can reflect the advantages and disadvantages of different fungus. The ARIMA model was used in five different environments to predict the impact of fungal community diversity on the overall efficiency of wood decomposing. Our research can not only help us to better understand the fungus community, but also significant for improving the quality of climate and the carbon cycle.