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  • Development of Estimate Formulas for Waist Circumference Using Body Mass Index and Limb Circumferences in Hospitalized Older Adults

    Background: Little research has been conducted on the estimate formulas for waist circumference using body mass index and limb circumferences in hospitalized older adults. Thus, we conducted the present study to develop estimate formulas of waist circumference using body mass index and limb circumferences in hospitalized older adults. Methods: Forty hospitalized older patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study. We measured waist circumference, body mass index, upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, thigh circumference, and calf circumference. The estimate formulas for waist circumference were developed using simple and multiple regression analysis. Results: Simple regression analysis indicated that body mass index, upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, thigh circumference, and calf circumference were independent explanators for waist circumference (p < 0.05 for all). In addition, body mass index, upper arm circumference, and forearm circumference but not thigh circumference and calf circumference were extracted as independent explanators for waist circumference in multiple regression analysis (p < 0.05). We were able to develop the estimate formulas using body mass index, upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, thigh circumference, and calf circumference. Conclusion: The results suggest that the estimate formulas for waist circumference may provide an opportunity to easily evaluate waist circumference, even in hospitalized older adults with kyphosis posture. However, future studies should be conducted to develop the estimate formulas for waist circumference with a lower error value.

  • Virus transmission through fragmented flight in cooked meat fumes at more than 10 meters of distance, a case report with SARS-CoV2 / COVID19

    Meat is a known virus carrier and its ability to spread viruses is shown here in a different way. Meat fumes from a cooking process carrying a virus led to indirect contamination.


    These two case studies aimed to investigate the effect and acceptance of progressive strength training in patients with muscular dystrophy. Case 1 completed a progressive resistance exercise over 12 weeks. The results showed increases in leg extensor strength, hand strength and balance. Furthermore, the anaerobic test showed an increase in the maximum glycolysis rate. Creatine kinase levels were reduced while maintaining low muscle soreness. Case 2 conducted seven weeks of electronically assisted strength training and electromyostimulation. In the course of the training, an increase in the self-contribution of the performance in the execution of movement was observed in the assisted strength training. Furthermore, an increase in the intensity of external stimuli was observed. The creatine kinase showed a reduction with physiological behavior of muscle soreness. The results demonstrate the acceptance and feasibility of progressive exercise protocols used to increase performance in two cases of muscular dystrophy.

  • A SonarQube Static Analysis of the Spectral Workbench

    The Spectral Workbench is an open-source, community driven software suite to obtain and disseminate spectral data. It consists of a client application that collects spectral readings and a server application that is an online database of spectral data. It is difficult to detect software defects in the Spectral Workbench application. A static analysis tool, SonarQube, was selected to find these defects. Numerous defects were detected and documented. SonarQube will increase the reliability of the Spectral Workbench, which provides numerous benefits including increased confidence in its data and effectiveness which will drive additional number of users for spectral repository data collection.

  • Predictive Value of Heart Rate Measures on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Critical Review of Select Recent Studies

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by maladaptive psychophysiological changes, such as a reduced vagal tone and hyperarousal, indicating autonomic nervous system dysfunction. In particular, physiological measures of heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) have been linked with PTSD expression, indicating that these measures may have diagnostic value. It remains unclear, however, whether altered heart rate and HRV contribute to the risk of PTSD development. This paper provides an overview of the present understanding of psychophysiological factors that may causally contribute to the manifestation of PTSD. The predictive value of heart rate and HRV measures are evaluated. The following sources of evidence are critically reviewed: relationships between momentary HRV components and PTSD symptom severity, predictions of PTSD development from post-trauma heart rate, and predictions of PTSD development from pre-trauma HRV. Available data challenge preliminary findings that abnormalities in heart rate and HRV currently offer reliable insight into PTSD development, but suggest that with additional research, there is a promising role for physiological biomarkers of autonomic dysregulation in risk prediction of future psychopathology.

  • Extra-synovial Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the knee joint, Case Repor

    Background: PVNS is a rare, benign & aggressive disorder arising from either synovial joints or tendon sheaths; it may erode articular structures and bones. We present a case with unique features of PVNS being extra-synovial and by this report we open a gate for more researches in this field. Case Presentation: This case report concerns a 35-year-old female with a history of right knee pain for 6-month duration proceeded by gradual swelling over posterior aspect of the knee, she denies any history of trauma, clinical examination was unremarkable but apart from tenderness over the infrapatellar region with full flexion. MRI shows a heterogenous signal extra-articular and extra-synovial lesion in posterior aspect of the knee suggesting Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis, FNA revealed a hemosiderin-laden macrophages and multinucleated giant cells, Tru-cut biopsy result was suggesting PVNS as synovial cells were seen admixed with hemosiderin-laden macrophages with fibroblastic elements. Through posterior approach; the lesion was surgically excised and histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis, the lesion was recurrent after 1-year and MRI revealed the same features, the lesion was excised by arthroscopic intervention. Conclusion: We concluded that PVNS cannot be excluded when extra-synovial lesion is assessed, and further researches on this topic will expand our understanding of the etiological and pathological aspects of this tumor.


    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common lower extremity injury in track and field athletes. Many risk factors are associated with MTSS, and lower extremity performance may become altered in athletes suffering from prior symptoms, potentially increasing risk of future injury. The purpose of this study was to first examine the effect a prior history of MTSS has on lower-extremity measures, per gender, in collegiate level track and field athletes, and then determine if such measures predict future injury. Fifty-three healthy Division III collegiate track and field athletes (mean age = 19.40 ± 1.13 years) completed an injury history questionnaire along with five preseason lower-extremity functional tests including: ankle dorsiflexion (DF), single-leg anterior reach (SLAR), two timed single-leg balance (SLBAL) tests on a force plate, and single-leg hop for distance (SLH). Performance data were compared across gender and questionnaire data regarding injury history and occurrence of MTSS. Fifteen subjects (28%) reported previous MTSS symptoms within the last 2 years. Chi-square analyses revealed females experienced more diagnoses compared to males (p = .03). Independent t-tests revealed differences between gender on all SLBAL tests, as males performed better on all recorded measures (p < .001 – p = .003). No significant differences were noted in lower-extremity performance tests between subjects with and without prior MTSS injuries. Regression analyses using postseason injury questionnaire data revealed prior MTSS injuries had 17.3 higher odds of experiencing MTSS during the season (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 17.33, 95% CI: 3.5 – 86.4; p = .001).


    In 2019, a new virus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) gave rise to an unknown outbreak that spread in China’s Hubei province, triggering a new epidemic known as coronavirus-19 (COVID -19). Several studies have demonstrated the metabolic pathways of SARS-COV-2 in angiotensin-converting enzyme receptors 2 (ACE2). With this, others have been considering an approach with drugs that bind to ACE2 receptors as well as antiviral activity as a possible treatment option for the disease. Thus, the objective of this present review was to evaluate some Asiatic herbs for both the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Some herbs, such as the extract of Artemisia annua (Artemisinins) and the extract of Isatis indigotica (Emodin), showed to be effective as inhibitors of adhesion of some viruses. Some studies observed this in the SARS-CoV S / ACE -2 protein interaction in which it inhibited the adhesion of the virus to the cell surface. Similarly, Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (Licorice) showed significant inhibiting action on the influenza virus and was shown to be an effective antiviral in many other viruses by weakening virus activity, such as inhibiting virus gene expression and replication, reducing adhesion force and stress through the reduction of high-mobility-group box1 (HMGB1) binding to DNA. Additionally, one of the best herbs in effective concentration value (EC50) found in this study was Lycoris Radiata with EC50: 2,4 ± 0.2 μg / ml. The results presented in this review are promising in the search for prophylactic treatment in a viral pandemic such as SARS-VOC-2. However, more clinical trials to validate the processes of the effectiveness of both plants and their extracts, as well as the synergy between the plants themselves are needed to validate future herbal treatments against SARS-VOC-2.

  • Identification of Interictal Paroxysmal Diffuse Sharp Activity with Eye Closure in Patients with Generalized Epilepsy

    Interictal EEG recordings of patients with generalized epilepsy have known interictal abnormalities such as generalized spike and wave activity during photic stimulation and hyperventilation, interictal spike and wave or diffuse sharp activity [1]. We report three patients with confirmed generalized epilepsy who’s interictal recordings showed paroxysmal diffuse sharp 10 Hz activity in all leads with eye closure following eye blinking. This pattern was not associated with interictal generalized spike and wave activity, clinical change in the patient or did not follow seizure activity. Abnormal eye movement with generalized spike and wave activity has been described in Jeavon’s syndrome, eyelid myotonia and Sunflower syndrome. However, our patients did not meet criteria for any of these diagnoses. Therefore, we feel that our finding of paroxysmal diffuse sharp alpha activity is a novel finding in these patients with primary generalized epilepsy and may be a newly reported marker for patients with primary generalized epilepsy. Recognition of PDSA activity and further study of this pattern is encouraged.

  • Intestinal anastomosis blowout following post-operative cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A case report

    Background: Pneumoperitoneum following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a very rare complication with a challenging management. In this paper we describe the management of a patient who suffered a blowout of his colorectal anastomosis after undergoing CPR for a cardiac arrest in the early post-operative period. Additionally, we present a thorough literature review of the management of CPR-related pneumoperitoneum. Summary: Five days after a sigmoid resection for colon cancer, a 71-year-old male went into pulseless electrical activity and CPR was initiated, with complete clinical recovery. After CPR the patient was found to have new hydropneumothorax and pneumoperitoneum. Because he had a normal abdominal examination, lack of leukocytosis, and no evidence of a bowel perforation on water-soluble CT imaging, the patient was initially managed non-operatively with close clinical follow-up. However, he failed the non-operative management and ultimately required a laparotomy demonstrating a blowout of his colonic anastomosis. Conclusion: Physicians should remain aware of the risk of damage to fresh bowel anastomoses following CPR. There should be a low threshold for surgical exploration in patients that develop CPR-related pneumoperitoneum soon after intestinal surgery, even when patient’s clinical status is stable.