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  • An accessory aberrant testicular artery branching from the inferior suprarenal artery: embryologic and genetic consideration

    During routine educational dissection of a cadaver (61-year-old, male, white descent), multiple aberrant right testicular artery and veins were discovered. Detailed analysis of the abdominal vascular pattern showed that the accessory aberrant testicular artery branched off the right inferior suprarenal artery. It crossed the anterior pararenal space, gave several branches to the soft tissues of the posterior pararenal space, and descended towards the deep inguinal ring. The accessory aberrant testicular vein accompanied the aberrant artery and was drained by the right inferior suprarenal vein into the renal one. Two other testicular veins followed a typical course and opened into the inferior vena cava. The anatomical variability reported in this paper requires attention of the related specialists, as it may significantly complicate surgical and minimally invasive procedures on the organs of the retroperitoneal space and inguinal region. Thorough preoperative investigation regarding the variability of the vascular pattern should be conducted in patients considered for intervention on the adrenal gland, kidney, or testis.


    Introduction: Neuroscience brings advances and revelations of specificities and functionalities of the nervous system, contributing to the understanding of the exposure influences of neuroanatomic structures in various physiological and behavioral factors. Given this, it is known that executive functions are modeled as the most diverse forms of social interaction and are closely linked to the prefrontal lobe. These skills are consolidated only in adulthood. In this sense, the nervous system in adolescence is subject to changes in its development for social and cultural reasons. Objective: In this sense, the aim of this study is to analyze the use and abuse of recreational drugs that act on the nervous system and their influence on executive functions and cognitive development during adolescence. Methodology: The methodology used was a literature review of the integrative type in the PUBMED and ScieELO databases published in the last 10 years. Results and discussions: The use of alcohol, marijuana and inhalants are causative agents of cognitive impairment, especially in processing speed and response and working memory during adolescence, but results are still controversial as information such as dosage is lacking. , time of use and time of abstinence of users. Final Considerations: The results showed controversies in the performance of these substances in neurobiological bases and their long term damages; Therefore, further longitudinal studies are needed to monitor the cognitive development of these diseases and cognitive impairment and its consequences in adulthood.


    This expanded summary is a research carried out at the Federal University of Pernambuco, addressing the theme of anxiety in learning. A survey was conducted with four questions for one hundred students from the Humanity, Exacts, Health and Nature areas, questioning them about their emotions in the school year, in order to reach the conclusion of how much the anxiety influences the learning process.

  • Uncovering the Human Insecurities and Coping Strategies of Indoor Sex Workers

    The purpose of this article is to explore the human insecurities of indoor sex workers and coping strategies they use to reduce their insecurities of different kind in the case of Woldia Town. The article employed 10 purposively selected indoor sex workers for in-depth interviews and four key informants (2pimps: owners of the bar house and 2 NGOs working on sex workers) as a key informant interviewee. In addition, one FGD was held with indoor sex workers to elicit group ideas about the issue. The article revealed that indoor sex workers are found to be faced with different human insecurities in their work and coping strategies that they are using to reduce their security threats. In general, the study conclude that indoor sex workers are at a high risk of insecurities therefore serious attention must be paid in order to address this problem and it suggests that the government, police department, NGO projects and the community are expected to do a lot to reduce the problem.


    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the scientific production on the scenarios of school bullying through searches in online journals in the areas of Health, Social Sciences and Humanities, from 2013 to 2018. METHOD: This is an integrative literature review. The sample consisted of 43 publications. RESULTS: The survey revealed that the 2014, 2017 and 2018 period presented a number of (21.42%) publications, followed by 2013 to 2016 (14.28%) and finally the 2015 period corresponding to (7.14%). of the total score of publications. As for the predominant country of origin of the main author was Colombia (28.57%). The predominant area of knowledge of the first author was psychology (42.85%). CONCLUSION: The discussion about the practice of school violence, Bullying, has gained notoriety due to the intensification and severity of the phenomenon in the various scenarios, especially in educational institutions, whether public or private. The information gathered through this study stimulates the current, contemporary debate, collaborating for future research on this subject.


    Budget deficits imitate rank of monetary health in which public outflow exceed public inflow. In this study the determinants of budget deficit analyzed in two regions east and west African cross countries from the year of 2000 to 2017 using a dynamic panel data approach. The data is obtained from WDI, IMF database and annual reports of these institutions. The study employed least square dummy variable fixed effect estimations technique of the model and It also investigate interaction variable of debt regressions result to know whether the source of debt in the regions of countries are same or not. The result reveals that higher number of unemployment, broad money supply and high amount of total population growth are associated with a significant effect on budget deficit. While real gross domestic product, debt and inflations rate are showed insignificant effect on budget deficit in the analysis of the regions. The study also including time invariant variable in the estimation result that is country dummy in the study implied that, as comparing to Ethiopia the amount of budget deficit in Tanzania, Senegal and Cote Divore are higher amount of public deficit implied by country dummy analysis of this study. The study indicates as policy implications reducing higher level of unemployment, broad money supply and populations’ growth rate are technically reducing budget deficit of the regions and knowing the optimum amount of budget that raised by the policy maker to the economy is crucial to the regions. Finally on the basis of this study, it makes a number of recommendations to reduce budget deficits in the regions.

  • Determination of Appropriate Seed Rate and Row Spacing of Bread Wheat for Highlands of Guji Zone

    Wheat is one of the major staple crops in Ethiopia in terms of both production and consumption. Even though it is such an important cereal crops in Ethiopia, it is giving low yield due to many production constraints such as lack of improved varieties, poor agronomic practice (inappropriate seeding rate and row spacing), diseases, weeds and low soil fertility in Ethiopia in general and in Guji zone in particular. Therefore, field experiment was conducted during the 2015-2017 main cropping season at Bore and Ana sora to assess the effect of seeding rate and row spacing on yield components and yield of bread wheat; and to determine appropriate seeding rates row spacing for bread wheat. The experiment was laid out RCBD in a factorial arrangement with three replications using a wheat variety known as ‘Huluka’ as a test crop. The treatments consisted of four levels of seeding rate (100, 125, 150 and 175 kg ha-1) and four levels of row spacing (15, 20, 25 and 30 cm) consisting a total of 16 treatments. Analysis of the results revealed that all parameters were significantly (P

  • Review on breast cancer immunotherapy

    Cancer immunotherapy consists of approaches that modify the host immune system, and/or the utilization of components of the immune system for treatment and prevention of cancer. Eventhough breast cancer has historically not been considered a favorable target for immunotherapies as compared to those solid tumors such as melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, several preclinical and clinical studies have provided important insights and clinical data that support its potential to improve clinical outcomes for patients with breast cancer. In addition, the recent definition of tumor-specific immunity in breast cancer patients and the identification of several breast cancer antigens has generated enthusiasm for the application of immune based therapies to the treatment of breast malignancies. In general, immunotherapies can be considered either non-specific, such as cytokine, or tumor specific for example a vaccine that targets breast cancer tumor antigens. Current immunotherapeutic approaches either through immunization of the patient (e.g., by administering a cancer vaccine), in which case the patient’s own immune system is trained to recognize tumor cells as targets to be destroyed, or through the administration of therapeutic antibodies as drugs, in which case the patient’s immune system is recruited to destroy tumor cells by the therapeutic antibodies, Cell based immunotherapy is another major entity of cancer immunotherapy. The review concluded that immunotherapeutic approaches combined with novel sequences of chemotherapies, radiation, and immunomodulating agents hold promise for enhancing the treatment of breast cancer.

  • The Role of Pilgrimage for Peace: A Study in St.Lalibela Rock Hewn Churches

    It is common to see thousands of pilgrims, both inside and out, to St. Lalibela Rock hewn churches of Ethiopia. But, it is uncommon to see studies on the role of pilgrimage for peace: much of the researches are focused on the economic importance of pilgrimage tourism in the country. Despite the existence of many religious tourist sites, scholars in Ethiopia gave little or no attention to the importance of pilgrimage for peace. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to investigate the role of pilgrimage for the inner and outer peace of pilgrims to St. Lalibela Rock hewn Churches of Ethiopia. To achieve this objective, the article employed 20 purposively selected pilgrims for in-depth interviews, four key informants (two were Tourism bureau officials of Lalibela town, and the other two were priests of the Church), personal observation and document reviews to collect data. In addition, one FGD, containing eight pilgrim discussants, was held with the pilgrims to elicit group ideas about the issue. Thematic categorization and analysis was used to analyze the collected data. The article revealed that the pilgrimage provides different inner peace for the pilgrims like, purification (healing from sin), relinquishment of self will, relinquishment of separateness, relinquishment of negative feelings, avoiding of the worrying habit, avoiding of the anger habit and the fear habit. Moreover, the article argued that the pilgrims achieved outer peace: upholding human dignity, challenging prejudice and building tolerance, promoting non-violence behavior, resolving and transforming conflicts, sharing of resources, caring not only for other pilgrims but also to the environment, and making inter-personal and inter-communal linkages. The article, therefore, concludes that pilgrimage cultivates both the inner and outer peace for the pilgrims in the study area. Finally, the article recommends that the role of pilgrimage for peace education in general and for the…

  • Inter-Ethnic Conflict Resolution by Local Peace Committee: The Case of Afar-Amhara Conflict

    Over the years, the Afar and Amhara people of the North Eastern Ethiopia have locked horns over the control of resources. The federal government delegated power to the two regional governments to settle the conflict between the two ethnic groups. However, efforts made by this tier of governments are failed to stop the conflict in the area. As a result, they established the joint LPCs made up of local people from both ethnic groups. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the process, challenges and opportunities of these LPC in its conflict resolution journey. To this attempt, the study employed both primary and secondary data sources. The study revealed that the LPCs employ series of process to resolve the conflict in the study area. Besides, it identifies a number of glaring challenges that the LPCs faced with. Despite the challenges that the LPCs faced with, the study further identifies the existence of opportunities which can positively benefit the LPCs to transform the conflict in the study area. In nutshell, the LPCs are found to be very important institutions in conflict resolution and promoting peace in the study area. Therefore, the study recommended those governmental and non-governmental agencies, the LPC members, the community, and intellectuals altogether should strive to decrease the challenges and promote the opportunities of these LPCs to solve the Afar-Amhara conflicts at the border.