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  • Dementia syndromes and health psychology

    The aging process is considered a worldwide phenomenon, and it is observed that the population has aged, where there is an inversion in the age pyramid resulting from the increase in life expectancy. This phenomenon has been investigated by several national and international studies. As results, there are some justifications that are being cited. Among these, are the presence of some demographic factors such as a reduction in fertilit, fecundity and mortality rate over the years, in addition, we highlight the technological advances in health and improvement in the quality of life of individuals1,2. Consequently, with the presence of these influencing factors, some studies highlight an epidemiological transition, where infectious diseases are being replaced by chronic-degenerative, as the main cause of morbidity and mortality, giving emphasis on dementia syndromes . In addition of aging, are expected physical, psychological and social changes that lead to changes in the life of each elderly. At this stage of life, in addition to chronic conditions, the decline in cognitive functions, such as changes in memory, speed of reasoning, and attention seem to take on a broader dimension. Thus, with the decline of these and other functions, several difficulties can be observed in the execution of activities of daily living of the elderly, implying difficulties in their “coming and going”, that is, in their autonomy and self-care.

  • The Elderly, Carriers of Dementia Syndromes and Dental Care

    The demographic and epidemiological transition resulting from declining birth rates, increased economically active population, decreased infectious diseases and increased chronic degenerative diseases produce a population scenario with a high number of elderly individuals, prone to developing dementia, whose prevalence is directly related to increasing age. Dementia is progressive and characterized by the loss of self-care ability and ability to perform activities of daily living, including the difficulty to perform oral hygiene and accept dental treatment, thus resulting in decreased oral health. Thus, it is necessary to know and think about oral care to increase the quality of life of this population through actions of health promotion, prevention and recovery with the accomplishment of home and hospital dental procedures, besides the traditional service, at a dental office.

  • Effects of Sublingual Misoprostol as Adjunct to Oxytocin for Active Management of Third Stage of Labour in Paturients at Risk of Post-partum Haemorrhage in Abakaliki : a Comparison of 200 Versus 400 Micrograms

    Background: Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) still remains a major cause of maternal mortality despite adequate knowledge of its causes and treatment. Oxytocin administration is one of the major components of active management of third stage of labour (AMTSL). Evidence suggest benefit of misoprostol as an adjunct however optimal dose is yet to be determine considering the dose depended side effect profile of misoprostol. . Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy and side effect profile of 200µg versus 400µg of prophylactic sublingual misoprostol as adjunct to AMTSL among parturient at risk for PPH. Methods: This was a double blinded, single centre, randomized controlled trial involving two hundred and forty parturient with 2.1% drop out rate , thus 235 of them were analyzed; 117 (48.8%) and 118(49.2%) for 200 and 400 microgram group respectively. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (IBM SPSS) software (version 24, Chicago II, USA). Continuous variables were presented as mean and standard deviation (Mean ± 2SD), while categorical variables were presented as numbers and percentages. Chi-square test (X2) was used for comparison between groups for qualitative variables while t-test was used for comparison between groups for quantitative variables. A difference with a P value

  • Oral Health Care for People With Mental and Behavioral Disorders

    There are many mental and behavioral disorders, being necessary to understand and differentiate them and their nuances for better care and dental care. This chapter will address depression, bipolar affective disorders, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder related to oral-dental care and repercussions such as reduced salivary flow due to depression and / or medication action. In general, anxiolytics and antidepressants are used. This salivary reduction contributes to the high rate of dental caries and periodontal diseases, favors the emergence of fungal infections and makes the oral mucosa fragile and susceptible to ulceration and trauma. Health promotion, including individual and collective actions, for prevention and early detection of oral lesions and oral cancer, restorative, anatomical, biological, functional and aesthetic oral care are necessary and contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of these patients. The worst dental condition found in patients with mental disorders may be related to the symptoms and characteristics of their own psychiatric condition, the effects of medications, but also to the stigma that permeates society and the patient himself. Thus, it is imperative to eliminate this stigma in order to favor the recovery and maintenance of oral health and, consequently, the quality of life of these patients.

  • Proposal for Group Intervention With Family of Users in a Mental Health Day-hospital Through Psycho-education

    Objective: present a proposal for psychological intervention, through a therapeutic group, with the family members of users of a Reference Mental Health Service aiming at strengthening the institution / family bond. Methodology: The Arco de Maguerez was used, an instrument developed in the 70s and the basis for the application of the Problem-solving Methodology. In this methodology, the study takes place from a certain aspect of social reality and consists of five stages: the observation of reality, the key points, the theorization, the hypotheses of solution and application to reality. Results and discussion: It is proposed that the group be divided into three modules. Module I, Crisis in Mental Health, is designed to address issues related to the crisis (concepts and definitions, alerts and signs, creative possibilities of the crisis, among others). Module II, Family member as caregiver, aims to explore the role and responsibilities assumed by family members of reference in the context of the service user’s illness. Finally, module III, Caregiver Self-Care, aims to stimulate reflections and provide a moment of self-care. Final considerations: During the meetings, it is expected to create a space where family members can share experiences, aiming at strengthening the group to deal with the difficulties and complexities of daily life, as well as enabling a discussion on mental health and the search for strategies that ease the burden of care and the family’s suffering.

  • Non Conventional Methods for Pain Relief and Oral Rehabilitation

    Introduction: Cultural factors, beliefs, and educational practices are in conflict with medical and dental practices. There are places where there is substitution of follow-up of the health team for several efficient treatments in clinical practice. The health professional, when taking cognizance of such practices should seek to prevent possible related complications, as well as to devise strategies to guide the individuals about their risks. Objective: To report cases of users of the Unified Health System (SUH) who used non-conventional methods not prescribed by dental surgeons for oral care and prosthetic oral rehabilitation. Results: The cases report behaviors, evidence habits, beliefs and customs of the population of Pernambuco that, although it is a user of SUH, has revealed to use own methods to solve oral needs. Cases 1 and 2 report adornment placement on dental prostheses, using artifacts such as orthodontic bracket and metal studs incorporated into artificial teeth. Case 3 reports the influence of popular beliefs on health care. Conclusion: The population makes use of alternative methods for oral care, especially for the control of dental pain and oral rehabilitation. It is important to consider beyond the difficulty of obtaining public assistance and resolution of the cases, also the contest involved of the population being necessary measures that correct or direct such actions.

  • Oral Carcinoma of Squamous Cells (OCSC) and Neoplasm Recurrence: Case Report

    Introduction: 95% of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Despite all advances in diagnosis and therapy, oral cavity cancer continues with an unfavorable prognosis, high rates of relapse and mortality. Case report: Patient AFL, 69 years old, caucasian, male gender, alcoholic, smoker, diabetic, with a history of ulcerated lesion on the floor of the mouth without painful symptoms was referred to the Head and Neck Surgery Service of the Oncology Center of the Hospital University of Pernambuco – CEON / HUOC / UPE, where he was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma moderately differentiated, ulcerated with perineural infiltration, angiolymphatic and in bone tissue, as well as lymph node metastasis. Staging IVa (T4a N1 Mx). Multimodal therapy (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with cisplatin) was performed. Dental monitoring was maintained in pre, trans and after treatment in order to carry out the previous oral adequacy and control of oral complications due to antineoplastic therapy. After 2 years and 11 months of treatment, the patient returned to the dental clinic of the CEON / HUOC / UPE, complaining of intense pain in the oral cavity, clinically verified: ulcerated lesion with areas of reddish and whitish color, base hardened to palpation in the buccal floor region. After exams, a local recurrence of the carcinoma was diagnosed, and a new therapeutic course was planned, and salvage surgery was chosen. Conclusion: Early diagnosis of oral ECC and medical and dental monitoring are factors that help reduce morbidity and mortality and improve the patient’s quality of life.

  • The Influence of Psychosocial-Affective Factors on Language Delay

    According to Nóbrega and Minervino (2011) , language is a corticocerebral func-tion that develops based on the environment and stimuli to which individuals are ex-posed, as well as being a vehicle of communication, since language allows to establish in-terpersonal relationships. Since childhood, people use some form of human communication, which is not composed solely by the use of words and phrases. Language development begins through the contact of babies with other people, through crying, looking, gestures, interaction be-tween mother and child, among other forms of communication and interaction. Thus, adults play a crucial role during this period by establishing a channel of affection and communication with the child, since adults are responsible for intermediating the baby’s relations with the world, through how they communicates with the child (AMORIM et al., 2012) . Based on this principle, Carvalho (2015) reports that the early years are an essen-tial period for the development of language skills, as many factors influence the language acquisition and development, such as: innate biological conditions; affection; cognitive, memory, organic-functional skills and the contexts in which the child is inserted. All children follow similar steps in the language development process, although it is susceptible to variations caused by some factors, such as: biological; psychological and social/environmental factors. In addition, an imbalance of these factors may slow this process, thus causing a language delay. Giacheti and Lindau (2016) explain that language delay is not associated with organic disorders or any other developmental problem, whether intellectual disability or genetic syndromes, since this is a transient condition in which in most cases is due to lack of family stimulation.

  • Local Understanding of Microbial Infections and the Implication on Care of Coronavirus and Disease

    Local categorization of illness and disease can form insight on the understanding of people’s behaviour and attitudes towards microbial infections and how such implicates Coronavirus and disease COVID-19. Relying on data generated through rapid research approach in some Yorùbá cities of southwestern Nigeria, where phoning, WhatsApp, Facebook, quick in-depth interviews, ethnobotanical survey/analysis of some anti-microbial herbs and case analysis were held. The study reveals local understanding of microbial infection and the opposing and contrasting perceptions of COVID-19, which informs different regimes of care and prevention. Such includes non-categorization of microbial infections into viral, bacterial and fungi; biomedical against preternatural causation and utilization of local herbs versus globalised western health care strategies. The study therefore suggests that within the context of globalised health culture accommodation of local traditions is imperative in proper understanding and invention of care and preventive strategies against COVID-19.

  • PASS Protocol Fever as basis of COVID-19 testing in Patient- A Union Therapy Initiative

    Fever is the sole symptomatic measurement modality for Covid-19 screening which could be implemented easily all over the globe in with optimal utilization of resources. Being easy economical and easily reproducible, this has a potential to be a gold standard as well as simplicity of the procedure could help in its monitoring by patients itself and would operate an important element of patient involvement in treatment and would help in adherence in countries where health care staff are short and patient burden is high. This protocol will extend helping hands to health care worker and will involve patient participation in the treatment also.